2

htam9876

1

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Thu 11 Mar, 2021 06:33 pm
At this moment, smart researchers who are sensitive in physics might think about such a question:

Why piggy can derive the mass – space equation from both Einstein’s SR as well as the pig’s physical model of elementary particle? From the view of the Mass Point Dynamics, Einstein’s SR is dynamic “consciousness” while the pig’s physical model of elementary particle is somewhat static “consciousness”…

………………………..

Smart guys with sufficient social experiences might aware something: someone with bad / dark mind might be trying to sabotage piggy’s effort here. Actually a what coffin box from what CN sabotaged piggy’s effort in PHF USA in 2020:

https://physicshelpforum.com/threads/the-game-of-match-sticks.16181/post-50090

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

Why piggy can derive the mass – space equation from both Einstein’s SR as well as the pig’s physical model of elementary particle? From the view of the Mass Point Dynamics, Einstein’s SR is dynamic “consciousness” while the pig’s physical model of elementary particle is somewhat static “consciousness”…

………………………..

Smart guys with sufficient social experiences might aware something: someone with bad / dark mind might be trying to sabotage piggy’s effort here. Actually a what coffin box from what CN sabotaged piggy’s effort in PHF USA in 2020:

https://physicshelpforum.com/threads/the-game-of-match-sticks.16181/post-50090

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

0 Replies

htam9876

1

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Sun 14 Mar, 2021 05:00 pm
And at this moment, piggy wants to move in some ideas of some “authentic” physicists I gathered from an “authentic” physics site and show what other physicists care and think. Touchy and feely:

Abstract from PAllen’s post:

“You are doing simple, well understood manipulations showing equivalence of different relativistic formulas. One thing you introduce is m versus m0, which is generally considered an obsolete notion.”

Abstract from Dale's post:

“Relativistic mass is a concept that has been abandoned by the scientific community now for several decades. I wouldn’t recommend using it.”

Abstract from Vanhees71's post:

“Einstein abandoned quite quickly the idea of relativistic masses. If you want to introduce this very confusing idea that the mass depends on the velocity of a particle, then you must introduce not only one such quantity but at least two, i.e., "transverse and longitudinal mass". This is utmost confusing and thus not done anymore by physicists using the special or general theory of relativity in contemporary research. The reason is that relativistic physics is most simply expressed in terms of tensor (and in high-energy physics also spinor) notation, where you only work with invariant quantities, i.e., tensors and spinors (or their covariant components). Einstein's "energy-mass equation" in modern form reads… For massless "particles" (there are no such things in nature though) m=0, and that's it. Here, m is the invariant mass and a scalar, and that's the only notion of mass which makes sense in a manifestly covariant formalism, and that's how it's done in modern formulations of relativistic theories.”

…………………………………

All these three physicists actually care the problem of “Relativistic mass”.

But mass is a most basic physical quantity such as space and time. Why space and time can be relativistic while mass not? Such most basic physical quantity as space, time and mass all be relativistic is reasonable.

According to the mass – space equation, if space can be relativistic and mass should be relativistic too.

(Piggy reminds again: The existence of the mass – space equation does not depend on reference frame / movement / SR.)

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 15, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

Abstract from PAllen’s post:

“You are doing simple, well understood manipulations showing equivalence of different relativistic formulas. One thing you introduce is m versus m0, which is generally considered an obsolete notion.”

Abstract from Dale's post:

“Relativistic mass is a concept that has been abandoned by the scientific community now for several decades. I wouldn’t recommend using it.”

Abstract from Vanhees71's post:

“Einstein abandoned quite quickly the idea of relativistic masses. If you want to introduce this very confusing idea that the mass depends on the velocity of a particle, then you must introduce not only one such quantity but at least two, i.e., "transverse and longitudinal mass". This is utmost confusing and thus not done anymore by physicists using the special or general theory of relativity in contemporary research. The reason is that relativistic physics is most simply expressed in terms of tensor (and in high-energy physics also spinor) notation, where you only work with invariant quantities, i.e., tensors and spinors (or their covariant components). Einstein's "energy-mass equation" in modern form reads… For massless "particles" (there are no such things in nature though) m=0, and that's it. Here, m is the invariant mass and a scalar, and that's the only notion of mass which makes sense in a manifestly covariant formalism, and that's how it's done in modern formulations of relativistic theories.”

…………………………………

All these three physicists actually care the problem of “Relativistic mass”.

But mass is a most basic physical quantity such as space and time. Why space and time can be relativistic while mass not? Such most basic physical quantity as space, time and mass all be relativistic is reasonable.

According to the mass – space equation, if space can be relativistic and mass should be relativistic too.

(Piggy reminds again: The existence of the mass – space equation does not depend on reference frame / movement / SR.)

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 15, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

0 Replies

maxdancona

1

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Sun 14 Mar, 2021 08:21 pm
I am curious....

If you wanted to take a real course in actual Physics at a local University, could you?

You are doing all this work making stuff up, it seems like you could take a course for the same effort. Then you would really understand what you are talking about.

If you wanted to take a real course in actual Physics at a local University, could you?

You are doing all this work making stuff up, it seems like you could take a course for the same effort. Then you would really understand what you are talking about.

htam9876

1

Reply
Mon 15 Mar, 2021 12:34 am
@maxdancona,

Obviously, my threads are not suitable for such ultimate stubborn guy as you. They are for the prospective researchers. hahaStop disturbing our normal research, please. Thank you.

Trying to be an obstacle in the development of science is not good for the world and even for yourself.

In piggy’s eye, you are just a crazy dog suffering rabies. understand?

0 Replies

htam9876

1

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Mon 15 Mar, 2021 12:56 am
Now, it’s time to entirely solve the problem piggy mentioned ahead: “Even in SR itself, there seems an obscure flaw: according to the relativistic principle, when the velocity of an electron v → c, its kinematic energy trends to infinite while obviously the kinematic energy of a photon is not infinite.”

According to the physical model of elementary particle ahead (for intuition sake, the simplified model better), an electron could be considered as a small round ball (the simplified model a circle) with the size / radium of r.

When the electron is moving, according to the length contraction principle of SR, r decreases. According to piggy’s mass – space equation m ∝ 1 / r, the mass of the electron increases. According to the relativistic kinematic energy equation Ek = mc² - m0c², the kinetic energy of the electron increases. When v → c, r → 0, the mass of the electron m → ∞, the kinetic energy of the electron Ek → ∞. Of course, r never can reach 0 because that means the electron disappears, non sense in physics. That’s why v can’t reach c.

A vivid analogy: A football can sit there. When you kick, it move; the more powerful you kick, it move faster.

According to the physical model of released photon ahead, the released photon is not the same MATTER STATE as the electron. The released photon is a section of electromagnetic wave travelling in straight line. So, it can’t sit and must travels in a constant velocity of c. There is no a specific shape / size / radium for the released photon. So, logically speaking, the rule of v → c, r → 0, m → ∞, Ek → ∞ is not applicable to the released photon.

For a released photon, the internal energy is just the kinematic energy:

Ek = hγ = mc².

Its internal energy hγ is description of the aspect of wave characteristic (electromagnetic wave) while its kinematic energy mc² is description of the aspect of particle characteristic (a section).

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 15, 2021

According to the physical model of elementary particle ahead (for intuition sake, the simplified model better), an electron could be considered as a small round ball (the simplified model a circle) with the size / radium of r.

When the electron is moving, according to the length contraction principle of SR, r decreases. According to piggy’s mass – space equation m ∝ 1 / r, the mass of the electron increases. According to the relativistic kinematic energy equation Ek = mc² - m0c², the kinetic energy of the electron increases. When v → c, r → 0, the mass of the electron m → ∞, the kinetic energy of the electron Ek → ∞. Of course, r never can reach 0 because that means the electron disappears, non sense in physics. That’s why v can’t reach c.

A vivid analogy: A football can sit there. When you kick, it move; the more powerful you kick, it move faster.

According to the physical model of released photon ahead, the released photon is not the same MATTER STATE as the electron. The released photon is a section of electromagnetic wave travelling in straight line. So, it can’t sit and must travels in a constant velocity of c. There is no a specific shape / size / radium for the released photon. So, logically speaking, the rule of v → c, r → 0, m → ∞, Ek → ∞ is not applicable to the released photon.

For a released photon, the internal energy is just the kinematic energy:

Ek = hγ = mc².

Its internal energy hγ is description of the aspect of wave characteristic (electromagnetic wave) while its kinematic energy mc² is description of the aspect of particle characteristic (a section).

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 15, 2021

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htam9876

1

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Mon 15 Mar, 2021 07:45 pm
A supportive experimental proof for the physical model of elementary particle, touchy and feely:

Neutrino vs photon, touchy and feely:

Neutrino and photon are both neutral particle (non - charged);

Piggy heard some theoretical physicists (such as Toppy sir) said that neutrino moves at light speed in vacuum; also I heard some experimental physicists said that neutrino moves at nearly the light speed in vacuum. No matter what it is, that means their speeds are no much different.

The question / emphasis here is that why the penetration ability of neutrino is extremely strong while the penetration ability of photon is so weak?

There might be many methods to argue one phenomenon. Also there might be one method to explain as many phenomena as possible:

The approximate relationship between the collision chance and the speed / size could be seen in the file of Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester.

https://physicshelpforum.com/threads/raining-an-ordinary-topic.15321/post-44305

In my physical model, the shape of neutrino is also a small round ball (simplified model a circle). That means it can just move at nearly the light speed in vacuum. Its size might contract to very tiny (in my personal theory, according to mass – space equation r ∝1 / M, space contracts in all directions because mass is a scalar). Then, that means the collision chance with other particles is very small when the neutrino shot into the medium (such as the Earth).

But the released photon is not the same situation. The physical model demonstrates that a released photon is “a section of electromagnetic wave”. It has much more chance to “say hello” to other particles in the medium.

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 16, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

Neutrino vs photon, touchy and feely:

Neutrino and photon are both neutral particle (non - charged);

Piggy heard some theoretical physicists (such as Toppy sir) said that neutrino moves at light speed in vacuum; also I heard some experimental physicists said that neutrino moves at nearly the light speed in vacuum. No matter what it is, that means their speeds are no much different.

The question / emphasis here is that why the penetration ability of neutrino is extremely strong while the penetration ability of photon is so weak?

There might be many methods to argue one phenomenon. Also there might be one method to explain as many phenomena as possible:

The approximate relationship between the collision chance and the speed / size could be seen in the file of Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester.

https://physicshelpforum.com/threads/raining-an-ordinary-topic.15321/post-44305

In my physical model, the shape of neutrino is also a small round ball (simplified model a circle). That means it can just move at nearly the light speed in vacuum. Its size might contract to very tiny (in my personal theory, according to mass – space equation r ∝1 / M, space contracts in all directions because mass is a scalar). Then, that means the collision chance with other particles is very small when the neutrino shot into the medium (such as the Earth).

But the released photon is not the same situation. The physical model demonstrates that a released photon is “a section of electromagnetic wave”. It has much more chance to “say hello” to other particles in the medium.

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 16, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

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htam9876

1

Reply
Fri 19 Mar, 2021 01:16 am
Neutrino vs photon 2, touchy and feely:

But when travelling in medium, something odd might happen. The speed of light in medium will slow down, while the penetration ability of neutrino is so strong that it almost meets nothing in medium. Then, neutrino might travel faster than light in medium.

Professional / experimental researcher may do experiment in water / glass medium to verify this point.

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 19, 2021

他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

But when travelling in medium, something odd might happen. The speed of light in medium will slow down, while the penetration ability of neutrino is so strong that it almost meets nothing in medium. Then, neutrino might travel faster than light in medium.

Professional / experimental researcher may do experiment in water / glass medium to verify this point.

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 19, 2021

他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

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htam9876

1

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Tue 23 Mar, 2021 07:36 pm
The Elementary Particle Structure as the supplement of the Mass Point Dynamics, new era of physics

Einstein’s energy – mass equation demonstrated the existence of the internal energy. But it is piggy who explained what is internal energy and how it is deposited. Why? Because Einstein’s theory belongs to the category of the Mass Point Dynamics. We throw out a small stone and try to use the Mass Point dynamics to describe its trajectory, we need not to take the size and shape of the small stone into consideration. But that doesn’t mean the small stone has no size and shape.

The mass point is just something abstract.

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 24, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

Einstein’s energy – mass equation demonstrated the existence of the internal energy. But it is piggy who explained what is internal energy and how it is deposited. Why? Because Einstein’s theory belongs to the category of the Mass Point Dynamics. We throw out a small stone and try to use the Mass Point dynamics to describe its trajectory, we need not to take the size and shape of the small stone into consideration. But that doesn’t mean the small stone has no size and shape.

The mass point is just something abstract.

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 24, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

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htam9876

1

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Thu 25 Mar, 2021 05:59 pm
Inflation / contraction of space in gravitational field, touchy and feely:

Assume a simple system: a planet and a spaceship, excluding all surrounding elements. The coordinate system for observer is built on the planet.

Assume the spaceship moves to the planet freely from remote place ∞. The length of the static spaceship in remote place ∞ is L, the rest mass is m0 and the dynamic mass is m. The mass of the planet is M.

When the spaceship moves freely to the position r away from the center of the planet, the velocity is v and the length is L’, γ is the “Gama” factor in SR.

Then, Ek = mc² - m0c² = GMm/r , γm0c²﹣ m0 c ² = GMm/r

So, 1 / γ = r m0c²/( GMm + r m0c² )

Let ÿ = 1 / γ, then, ÿ = r m0c²/( GMm + r m0c² )

L’ = L / γ = ÿ L

When r →∞, ÿ →1, L’ → L; when r → 0, ÿ → 0, L’ → 0.

If no gravity existing between the spaceship and the planet, when the spaceship moves freely to the planet in constant velocity, the length of the spaceship will not contract more and more seriously.

So, the more and more serious contraction of the length of the spaceship during the course of the free approaching could be considered as the effect of gravity.

Illustration:

The length of the spaceship (L or L’) is just the specific demonstration of 3D physical space.

Due to the existence of mass (or say gravity), the three dimension physical space is uneven in the radial direction of the planet; Determined by the master (the planet) and reflected by the objective (the spaceship). Or say, the three dimension physical space inflates in the radial direction of the planet. The further away from the planet, the more serious the inflation will be.

……………………………………………….

(A vivid analogy is the density of air of the atmosphere of the earth, which is thicker at the bottom while thinner at the top.)

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 26, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

Assume a simple system: a planet and a spaceship, excluding all surrounding elements. The coordinate system for observer is built on the planet.

Assume the spaceship moves to the planet freely from remote place ∞. The length of the static spaceship in remote place ∞ is L, the rest mass is m0 and the dynamic mass is m. The mass of the planet is M.

When the spaceship moves freely to the position r away from the center of the planet, the velocity is v and the length is L’, γ is the “Gama” factor in SR.

Then, Ek = mc² - m0c² = GMm/r , γm0c²﹣ m0 c ² = GMm/r

So, 1 / γ = r m0c²/( GMm + r m0c² )

Let ÿ = 1 / γ, then, ÿ = r m0c²/( GMm + r m0c² )

L’ = L / γ = ÿ L

When r →∞, ÿ →1, L’ → L; when r → 0, ÿ → 0, L’ → 0.

If no gravity existing between the spaceship and the planet, when the spaceship moves freely to the planet in constant velocity, the length of the spaceship will not contract more and more seriously.

So, the more and more serious contraction of the length of the spaceship during the course of the free approaching could be considered as the effect of gravity.

Illustration:

The length of the spaceship (L or L’) is just the specific demonstration of 3D physical space.

Due to the existence of mass (or say gravity), the three dimension physical space is uneven in the radial direction of the planet; Determined by the master (the planet) and reflected by the objective (the spaceship). Or say, the three dimension physical space inflates in the radial direction of the planet. The further away from the planet, the more serious the inflation will be.

……………………………………………….

(A vivid analogy is the density of air of the atmosphere of the earth, which is thicker at the bottom while thinner at the top.)

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 26, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

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htam9876

1

Reply
Fri 26 Mar, 2021 10:19 pm
Gravitational red shift phenomenon:

Due to the inflation of the three dimension physical space, the wave length of light increases when it travels from the ground to the top of the Pizza Tower.

A vivid analogy is to put a wave length in a balloon. When the balloon inflates, the wave length will stretch.

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 27, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

Due to the inflation of the three dimension physical space, the wave length of light increases when it travels from the ground to the top of the Pizza Tower.

A vivid analogy is to put a wave length in a balloon. When the balloon inflates, the wave length will stretch.

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 27, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

0 Replies

htam9876

1

Reply
Sat 27 Mar, 2021 06:00 pm
Conservation of energy, touchy and feely:

As I illustrated ahead, “due to the existence of mass (or say gravity), the three dimension physical space is uneven.” The contraction or say in counter way the inflation of the three dimension physical space reflects the gravitational potential. The inflation of the three dimension physical space reflects the increase of gravitational potential.

At this moment, I pull in another thing, the mass- space equation to join in the fun: M ∝ 1 / L’ (note: I am habitual to use upper case letters in this equation because the lower case of L looks like a “1”) illustrates that the contraction or say in counter way the inflation of the three dimension physical space reflects the dynamic mass, in turn, reflects the kinematic energy Ek = mc² - m0c². The inflation of the three dimension physical space reflects the decrease of the kinematic energy.

For example, if you throw a ball from the ground to the top of the Pizza Tower, the inflation of the three dimension physical space (the relativistic size of the ball) reflects both the increase of gravitational potential and the decrease of the kinematic energy. That’s why the energy conserves (︱△U ︱= ︱△Ek︱ ).

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 28, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

As I illustrated ahead, “due to the existence of mass (or say gravity), the three dimension physical space is uneven.” The contraction or say in counter way the inflation of the three dimension physical space reflects the gravitational potential. The inflation of the three dimension physical space reflects the increase of gravitational potential.

At this moment, I pull in another thing, the mass- space equation to join in the fun: M ∝ 1 / L’ (note: I am habitual to use upper case letters in this equation because the lower case of L looks like a “1”) illustrates that the contraction or say in counter way the inflation of the three dimension physical space reflects the dynamic mass, in turn, reflects the kinematic energy Ek = mc² - m0c². The inflation of the three dimension physical space reflects the decrease of the kinematic energy.

For example, if you throw a ball from the ground to the top of the Pizza Tower, the inflation of the three dimension physical space (the relativistic size of the ball) reflects both the increase of gravitational potential and the decrease of the kinematic energy. That’s why the energy conserves (︱△U ︱= ︱△Ek︱ ).

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 28, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

0 Replies

htam9876

1

Reply
Sun 28 Mar, 2021 06:20 pm
Piggy awared that the pig head was defeated by the what coffin box from what CN in PHF USA in 2020:

https://physicshelpforum.com/threads/the-game-of-match-sticks.16181/post-50090

………………………………………………….

Primary unified conception of energy, touchy and feely:

The Space – Frequency Equation:

Because the radius of elementary particle is: r = ntλt / 2π, λt = c / γt, then: r = ntc /γt2π

Because nt, c, 2π are all constants, r ∝ 1 / γt, or γt∝ 1 / r

In general words, r ∝ 1 / γ, or γ ∝ 1 / r; (here γ is frequency)

This could be called the Space – Frequency Equation.

Actually, according to the space – frequency equation, the contraction or say in counter way the inflation of the three dimension physical space also reflects the internal energy.

For example, if you throw an elementary particle from the ground to the top of the Pizza Tower, the inflation of the three dimension physical space (the relativistic size of the elementary particle r) reflects the increase of gravitational potential, the decrease of the kinematic energy as well as the decrease of the internal energy. (︱△U ︱= ︱△Ek︱= h︱△γ︱ ).

Namely, the essence of the change of the gravitational potential and the kinematic energy of the elementary particle could be considered as the change of the internal energy, in turn, the change of the frequency of circle kind standing wave. (Note: this principle is also applicable to the released photon.)

Assume a free elementary particle stations in the infinite remote point from the Earth, the circle kind standing wave (simplified model) has a basic radium of “r0” and a basic frequency of “γ0”. When it approaches the Earth freely in the gravitational field,its radium r contracts, the gravitational potential appeared and decreased and the kinematic energy is generated and the internal energy increased:

︱U ︱= ︱Ek︱= h︱△γ︱

In this sense, perhaps it could be considered that the gravitational potential and the kinematic energy essentially are the change of the internal energy, in turn, the change of the frequency.

The zero point of gravitational potential defines in the infinite point is a natural choice.

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 29, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

https://physicshelpforum.com/threads/the-game-of-match-sticks.16181/post-50090

………………………………………………….

Primary unified conception of energy, touchy and feely:

The Space – Frequency Equation:

Because the radius of elementary particle is: r = ntλt / 2π, λt = c / γt, then: r = ntc /γt2π

Because nt, c, 2π are all constants, r ∝ 1 / γt, or γt∝ 1 / r

In general words, r ∝ 1 / γ, or γ ∝ 1 / r; (here γ is frequency)

This could be called the Space – Frequency Equation.

Actually, according to the space – frequency equation, the contraction or say in counter way the inflation of the three dimension physical space also reflects the internal energy.

For example, if you throw an elementary particle from the ground to the top of the Pizza Tower, the inflation of the three dimension physical space (the relativistic size of the elementary particle r) reflects the increase of gravitational potential, the decrease of the kinematic energy as well as the decrease of the internal energy. (︱△U ︱= ︱△Ek︱= h︱△γ︱ ).

Namely, the essence of the change of the gravitational potential and the kinematic energy of the elementary particle could be considered as the change of the internal energy, in turn, the change of the frequency of circle kind standing wave. (Note: this principle is also applicable to the released photon.)

Assume a free elementary particle stations in the infinite remote point from the Earth, the circle kind standing wave (simplified model) has a basic radium of “r0” and a basic frequency of “γ0”. When it approaches the Earth freely in the gravitational field,its radium r contracts, the gravitational potential appeared and decreased and the kinematic energy is generated and the internal energy increased:

︱U ︱= ︱Ek︱= h︱△γ︱

In this sense, perhaps it could be considered that the gravitational potential and the kinematic energy essentially are the change of the internal energy, in turn, the change of the frequency.

The zero point of gravitational potential defines in the infinite point is a natural choice.

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

March 29, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

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htam9876

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Thu 1 Apr, 2021 06:34 pm
The third “coincidence” with Einstein’s Relativity, touchy and feely:

Actually, Einstein was the first guy who demonstrated that “kinematic energy essentially is the change of the internal energy”:

In the relativistic kinematic energy equation: Ek = m c² - m0 c², the item of “m c²” or “m0 c²” are neither kinematic energy nor gravitational potential but the internal energy.

……………………………………

Due to the absolute cruel and all around suppression / torture of the local dark lords of the Jiangmen city – the First Order, piggy is in bad heath and very bad mental situation…almost dead. So piggy is not qualified to serve as the semi – half payment watchmen in their small business they nailed for piggy. That means piggy die hard… bounce.

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

April 2, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

Actually, Einstein was the first guy who demonstrated that “kinematic energy essentially is the change of the internal energy”:

In the relativistic kinematic energy equation: Ek = m c² - m0 c², the item of “m c²” or “m0 c²” are neither kinematic energy nor gravitational potential but the internal energy.

……………………………………

Due to the absolute cruel and all around suppression / torture of the local dark lords of the Jiangmen city – the First Order, piggy is in bad heath and very bad mental situation…almost dead. So piggy is not qualified to serve as the semi – half payment watchmen in their small business they nailed for piggy. That means piggy die hard… bounce.

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

April 2, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

0 Replies

htam9876

1

Reply
Tue 6 Apr, 2021 05:35 pm
Supplementary stuff to the chapter “primary unified conception of energy”:

(In the X4 Theory, the released photon is in a very special matter state and it must be treated in a special way.)

In my physical model, the released photon is a section of electromagnetic wave, different matter state from other elementary particles (spherical electromagnetic wave). It can’t sit, and must travels in light speed c. For a released photon, the internal energy is just the kinematic energy:

Ek = hγ = mc². So, ︱△Ek︱= h︱△γ︱.

Its internal energy hγ is description of the aspect of wave characteristic (electromagnetic wave) while its kinematic energy mc² is description of the aspect of particle characteristic (a section).

In gravitational field, a balloon is needed to help the research. Put a wave length in a balloon and throw it from the ground to the top of the Pizza Tower. The balloon inflates, the wave length will stretch and the frequency will decrease.

(At this moment, piggy wants to talk a bit about the light speed in gravitational field. We had some discussions in this respect in PHF:

https://physicshelpforum.com/threads/general-vs-special.16046/post-49565

Piggy agrees that light speed does not change in gravitational field.)

The inflation of the three dimension physical space reflects both the increase of gravitational potential and the decrease of the frequency (the decrease of the internal energy). Then:︱△U ︱= h︱△γ︱.

So,︱△U ︱= ︱△Ek︱= h︱△γ︱

Namely, the essence of the change of the gravitational potential and the kinematic energy of the released photon could be considered as the change of the internal energy, in turn, the change of the frequency.

Liqiang Chen

April 7, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

(In the X4 Theory, the released photon is in a very special matter state and it must be treated in a special way.)

In my physical model, the released photon is a section of electromagnetic wave, different matter state from other elementary particles (spherical electromagnetic wave). It can’t sit, and must travels in light speed c. For a released photon, the internal energy is just the kinematic energy:

Ek = hγ = mc². So, ︱△Ek︱= h︱△γ︱.

Its internal energy hγ is description of the aspect of wave characteristic (electromagnetic wave) while its kinematic energy mc² is description of the aspect of particle characteristic (a section).

In gravitational field, a balloon is needed to help the research. Put a wave length in a balloon and throw it from the ground to the top of the Pizza Tower. The balloon inflates, the wave length will stretch and the frequency will decrease.

(At this moment, piggy wants to talk a bit about the light speed in gravitational field. We had some discussions in this respect in PHF:

https://physicshelpforum.com/threads/general-vs-special.16046/post-49565

Piggy agrees that light speed does not change in gravitational field.)

The inflation of the three dimension physical space reflects both the increase of gravitational potential and the decrease of the frequency (the decrease of the internal energy). Then:︱△U ︱= h︱△γ︱.

So,︱△U ︱= ︱△Ek︱= h︱△γ︱

Namely, the essence of the change of the gravitational potential and the kinematic energy of the released photon could be considered as the change of the internal energy, in turn, the change of the frequency.

Liqiang Chen

April 7, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

0 Replies

htam9876

1

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Fri 9 Apr, 2021 05:52 pm
Supplementary stuff 2 to the chapter “primary unified conception of energy”:

Assume a released photon in the infinite remote point from the Earth, and has a basic frequency of “γ0”. When it enters the gravitational field of the Earth, due to contraction of space, the wave length will contract too and the frequency will increase. The gravitational potential appeared and decreased and the internal energy increased:

︱U ︱= h︱△γ︱

In this sense, perhaps it could be considered that the gravitational potential of a released photon essentially is the change of the internal energy, in turn, the change of the frequency.

The zero point of gravitational potential defines in the infinite point is a natural choice.

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

April 10, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

Assume a released photon in the infinite remote point from the Earth, and has a basic frequency of “γ0”. When it enters the gravitational field of the Earth, due to contraction of space, the wave length will contract too and the frequency will increase. The gravitational potential appeared and decreased and the internal energy increased:

︱U ︱= h︱△γ︱

In this sense, perhaps it could be considered that the gravitational potential of a released photon essentially is the change of the internal energy, in turn, the change of the frequency.

The zero point of gravitational potential defines in the infinite point is a natural choice.

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

April 10, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

0 Replies

htam9876

1

Reply
Sun 11 Apr, 2021 05:58 pm
“Sciences are all interconnected…”

It should be that case because we have only one cosmos.

Talk about the traditional SR again. It’s considered that velocity v causes the contraction of space. But in gravitational field, space can contract too. The proton can contract too in the u Hydrogen. From the angle of velocity v, the dynamic vs the gravitational vs the static could not be interconnected. There must be a unified “controlling element” hiding behind. Perhaps from the angle of energy / mass, the dynamic vs the gravitational vs the static could be interconnected. Haha

Moreover, space and time are the most basic things in cosmos. The conception of velocity v is even something built on space – time. Why should they be subjected to the control of such a bit more complicated thing as velocity v? Logic confused? The thought of velocity v causes the contraction of space and inflation of time is irrational in philosophy.

(Piggy is in hell and is not able to control anything but trying with the last breath to escape from being controlled absolutely by the local dark lords of the Jiangmen city – the First Order. What piggy can do is to post some “eccentric” stuff for reference to those guys who are willing to touch the elephant in an alternative way as soon as I have prepared it. Piggy wishes them be good players in the upcoming new era. )

Liqiang Chen

April 12, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

It should be that case because we have only one cosmos.

Talk about the traditional SR again. It’s considered that velocity v causes the contraction of space. But in gravitational field, space can contract too. The proton can contract too in the u Hydrogen. From the angle of velocity v, the dynamic vs the gravitational vs the static could not be interconnected. There must be a unified “controlling element” hiding behind. Perhaps from the angle of energy / mass, the dynamic vs the gravitational vs the static could be interconnected. Haha

Moreover, space and time are the most basic things in cosmos. The conception of velocity v is even something built on space – time. Why should they be subjected to the control of such a bit more complicated thing as velocity v? Logic confused? The thought of velocity v causes the contraction of space and inflation of time is irrational in philosophy.

(Piggy is in hell and is not able to control anything but trying with the last breath to escape from being controlled absolutely by the local dark lords of the Jiangmen city – the First Order. What piggy can do is to post some “eccentric” stuff for reference to those guys who are willing to touch the elephant in an alternative way as soon as I have prepared it. Piggy wishes them be good players in the upcoming new era. )

Liqiang Chen

April 12, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

0 Replies

htam9876

1

Reply
Mon 12 Apr, 2021 06:13 pm
This post is a bit odd.

https://physicshelpforum.com/threads/the-game-of-match-sticks.16181/post-50090

If you think that piggy has been defeated by the what coffin box from what CN in PHF USA in 2020, please ignore what I am talking in this post. Thank you.

……………………………………………….

In critical juncture of history, those guys who are willing to invert the habitual thought could be good player.

Unified rules of the 3D physical space, touchy and feely:

The dynamic vs the gravitational vs the static, touchy and feely:

The Mass – Space equation L’ ∝ 1/ M come in first. It contains just two most basic physics quantity: mass and space. It’s the most basic equation in cosmos and reflects the most basic natural rule. So, shake off the effect of reference frame, it would be L ∝ 1/ M.

According to SR:

The equation for the traditional Lorentz transformation of length contraction is: L’ = L / γ (here γ is the Gama factor.)

The equation for the time dilation is: △t’ = γ△t (△t could be considered as mean time unit)

Then, △t’L’ = L△t

Because “L△t” is a constant, we got △t’ ∝ 1 / L’. This might be called the Time – Space equation.

The Time – Space equation △t’ ∝ 1 / L’ contains just two most basic physics quantity: time and space. It’s also the most basic equation in cosmos and reflects the most basic natural rule. So, shake off the effect of reference frame, it will be △t ∝ 1 / L.

Then: △t ∝ M. This might be called the Mass – Time equation.

The Mass – Space equation from my physical model of elementary particle is r ∝ 1/ M;

The Mass – Time equation accompanies it is also △t ∝ M.

The internal energy E ∝ M, then:

L ∝ 1/ E, or r ∝ 1/ E, this can be called the Energy – Space equation;

And △t ∝ E, this can be called the Energy – Time equation

Hereby, X4 Theory formally employs mass or energy (internal energy) to control space and time. It’s applicable in all situations of the dynamic vs the gravitational vs the static.

(Put aside the case of the released photon temporarily)

The dynamic situation:

When an elementary particle moves, the kinematic energy occurs and its internal energy E = m0c² + Ek. According to the Energy – Space equation L ∝ 1/ E, or r ∝ 1/ E, the increase of the internal energy E results in the contraction of the 3D physical space. According to the Energy – Time equation △t ∝ E, the increase of the internal energy E results in the inflation of time.

The gravitational situation:

When an elementary particle locates in gravitational field (relative to the infinite point), its gravitational energy is negative. Its internal energy E increases. According to the Energy – Space equation L ∝ 1/ E, or r ∝ 1/ E, the increase of the internal energy E results in the contraction of the 3D physical space. According to the Energy – Time equation △t ∝ E, the increase of the internal energy E results in the inflation of time.

The static situation:

“According to the Mass – Space equation r ∝1 / M, the rise of the increased mass of the proton results in the contraction of the radius of the proton in μ Hydrogen atom.” And according to the Mass – Time equation △t ∝ M, the rise of the increased mass of the proton results in the inflation of time of the proton in μ Hydrogen atom. There is no absolute time, even in situation of the static.

The cosmic environment situation (this is a statistic / average case):

The “Mass – Space equation” can transform into another form: L ∝ 1/ρ. The derivation course is as below:

Assume V is a certain value of any finite volume, then: L ∝(1 / V)﹝1 / (M / V)﹞,

1 / V is a constant; M / V = ρ

The mass density of the cosmos now is much smaller than that of billions of years ago. According to the Mass - Space equation L ∝ 1/ρ, the 3D physical space of the cosmos is much different than that of billions of years ago. And the Mass – Time equation can transform into another form: △t ∝ ρ. The criterion of time is dynamic in the evolution of cosmos.

At any historical juncture, guys who are willing to invert their habitual thought could become good players.

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

April 13, 2021

Seems that it’s irrational for piggy to be controlled by the local dark lords of the Jiangmen city – the First Order. What a joke it will be in 21st century. Piggy can’t surrender to them. That means piggy has no choice but die hard in CN. Bounce…

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

https://physicshelpforum.com/threads/the-game-of-match-sticks.16181/post-50090

If you think that piggy has been defeated by the what coffin box from what CN in PHF USA in 2020, please ignore what I am talking in this post. Thank you.

……………………………………………….

In critical juncture of history, those guys who are willing to invert the habitual thought could be good player.

Unified rules of the 3D physical space, touchy and feely:

The dynamic vs the gravitational vs the static, touchy and feely:

The Mass – Space equation L’ ∝ 1/ M come in first. It contains just two most basic physics quantity: mass and space. It’s the most basic equation in cosmos and reflects the most basic natural rule. So, shake off the effect of reference frame, it would be L ∝ 1/ M.

According to SR:

The equation for the traditional Lorentz transformation of length contraction is: L’ = L / γ (here γ is the Gama factor.)

The equation for the time dilation is: △t’ = γ△t (△t could be considered as mean time unit)

Then, △t’L’ = L△t

Because “L△t” is a constant, we got △t’ ∝ 1 / L’. This might be called the Time – Space equation.

The Time – Space equation △t’ ∝ 1 / L’ contains just two most basic physics quantity: time and space. It’s also the most basic equation in cosmos and reflects the most basic natural rule. So, shake off the effect of reference frame, it will be △t ∝ 1 / L.

Then: △t ∝ M. This might be called the Mass – Time equation.

The Mass – Space equation from my physical model of elementary particle is r ∝ 1/ M;

The Mass – Time equation accompanies it is also △t ∝ M.

The internal energy E ∝ M, then:

L ∝ 1/ E, or r ∝ 1/ E, this can be called the Energy – Space equation;

And △t ∝ E, this can be called the Energy – Time equation

Hereby, X4 Theory formally employs mass or energy (internal energy) to control space and time. It’s applicable in all situations of the dynamic vs the gravitational vs the static.

(Put aside the case of the released photon temporarily)

The dynamic situation:

When an elementary particle moves, the kinematic energy occurs and its internal energy E = m0c² + Ek. According to the Energy – Space equation L ∝ 1/ E, or r ∝ 1/ E, the increase of the internal energy E results in the contraction of the 3D physical space. According to the Energy – Time equation △t ∝ E, the increase of the internal energy E results in the inflation of time.

The gravitational situation:

When an elementary particle locates in gravitational field (relative to the infinite point), its gravitational energy is negative. Its internal energy E increases. According to the Energy – Space equation L ∝ 1/ E, or r ∝ 1/ E, the increase of the internal energy E results in the contraction of the 3D physical space. According to the Energy – Time equation △t ∝ E, the increase of the internal energy E results in the inflation of time.

The static situation:

“According to the Mass – Space equation r ∝1 / M, the rise of the increased mass of the proton results in the contraction of the radius of the proton in μ Hydrogen atom.” And according to the Mass – Time equation △t ∝ M, the rise of the increased mass of the proton results in the inflation of time of the proton in μ Hydrogen atom. There is no absolute time, even in situation of the static.

The cosmic environment situation (this is a statistic / average case):

The “Mass – Space equation” can transform into another form: L ∝ 1/ρ. The derivation course is as below:

Assume V is a certain value of any finite volume, then: L ∝(1 / V)﹝1 / (M / V)﹞,

1 / V is a constant; M / V = ρ

The mass density of the cosmos now is much smaller than that of billions of years ago. According to the Mass - Space equation L ∝ 1/ρ, the 3D physical space of the cosmos is much different than that of billions of years ago. And the Mass – Time equation can transform into another form: △t ∝ ρ. The criterion of time is dynamic in the evolution of cosmos.

At any historical juncture, guys who are willing to invert their habitual thought could become good players.

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

April 13, 2021

Seems that it’s irrational for piggy to be controlled by the local dark lords of the Jiangmen city – the First Order. What a joke it will be in 21st century. Piggy can’t surrender to them. That means piggy has no choice but die hard in CN. Bounce…

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

0 Replies

htam9876

1

Reply
Wed 14 Apr, 2021 05:14 pm
Supplementary stuff to the chapter “the dynamic vs the gravitational vs the static”:

(In the X4 Theory, the released photon is in a very special matter state and it must be treated in a special way.)

The dynamic situation:

Light speed is an invariable in different inertial frames. We assume the kinematic energy of a released photon does not change in different inertial frames: Ek = Ek’. Then, its internal energy does not change in different inertial frames: E = E’. According to Energy – Space equation, the 3D physical space does not change in different inertial frames; according to Energy – Time equation, the time does not change in different inertial frames: L = L’ (note: L or L’ could be considered as the length of the section of electromagnetic wave); △t = △t’.

Let d = kL, d’ = kL’ (note: k is a proportion; d or d’ could be considered as the distance the released photon travels in unit time.)

So, d / △t = d’ / △t’. Namely c = c’. It means light speed is an invariable in different inertial frames. No contradiction.

The gravitational situation:

If a released photon travels from the ground to the top of the Pizza tower, its gravitational potential increases. And its internal energy decreases (note: its kinematic energy also decreases). According to Energy – Space equation, the 3D physical space inflates. Its wave length stretches. This point could be verified by the gravitational red shift phenomenon. According to the Energy – Time equation, time deflates.

At this moment, piggy wants to talk a bit about the light speed in gravitational field. We had some discussions in this respect in PHF:

https://physicshelpforum.com/threads/general-vs-special.16046/post-49565

Piggy agrees that light speed does not change in gravitational field.

It demonstrates that the employment of velocity to control space – time is not sufficient enough. Energy / mass could be a better player.

The static situation:

In my physical model, the released photon is a section of electromagnetic wave, different matter state from other elementary particles (spherical electromagnetic wave). It can’t sit, and must travels in light speed c. So, there is no a static situation for the released photon.

The cosmic environment situation:

If the cosmos is expanding, the mass density of the cosmos now is much smaller than that of billions of years ago. According to the mass space equation L ∝ 1/ρ, the 3D physical space of the cosmos is much different than that of billions of years ago. That means when light from a remote galaxy reaches the Earth today, its wavelength has been stretched significantly. It’s a “cross space - time” case.

Liqiang Chen

April 15, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

(In the X4 Theory, the released photon is in a very special matter state and it must be treated in a special way.)

The dynamic situation:

Light speed is an invariable in different inertial frames. We assume the kinematic energy of a released photon does not change in different inertial frames: Ek = Ek’. Then, its internal energy does not change in different inertial frames: E = E’. According to Energy – Space equation, the 3D physical space does not change in different inertial frames; according to Energy – Time equation, the time does not change in different inertial frames: L = L’ (note: L or L’ could be considered as the length of the section of electromagnetic wave); △t = △t’.

Let d = kL, d’ = kL’ (note: k is a proportion; d or d’ could be considered as the distance the released photon travels in unit time.)

So, d / △t = d’ / △t’. Namely c = c’. It means light speed is an invariable in different inertial frames. No contradiction.

The gravitational situation:

If a released photon travels from the ground to the top of the Pizza tower, its gravitational potential increases. And its internal energy decreases (note: its kinematic energy also decreases). According to Energy – Space equation, the 3D physical space inflates. Its wave length stretches. This point could be verified by the gravitational red shift phenomenon. According to the Energy – Time equation, time deflates.

At this moment, piggy wants to talk a bit about the light speed in gravitational field. We had some discussions in this respect in PHF:

https://physicshelpforum.com/threads/general-vs-special.16046/post-49565

Piggy agrees that light speed does not change in gravitational field.

It demonstrates that the employment of velocity to control space – time is not sufficient enough. Energy / mass could be a better player.

The static situation:

In my physical model, the released photon is a section of electromagnetic wave, different matter state from other elementary particles (spherical electromagnetic wave). It can’t sit, and must travels in light speed c. So, there is no a static situation for the released photon.

The cosmic environment situation:

If the cosmos is expanding, the mass density of the cosmos now is much smaller than that of billions of years ago. According to the mass space equation L ∝ 1/ρ, the 3D physical space of the cosmos is much different than that of billions of years ago. That means when light from a remote galaxy reaches the Earth today, its wavelength has been stretched significantly. It’s a “cross space - time” case.

Liqiang Chen

April 15, 2021

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

0 Replies

htam9876

1

Reply
Sun 18 Apr, 2021 05:13 pm
In this chapter, piggy wants to talk a bit more about the light speed in gravitational field.

First, “light speed” or “the speed of light” is a habitual expression. The expression “the speed of light does not change”~what we mean is the magnitude of the speed of light (the “velocity”) does not change.

We had some discussions in this respect in PHF:

https://physicshelpforum.com/threads/general-vs-special.16046/post-49565

Physicsquest’s comment:

From what little I know, the speed does not change, the frequency does leading to red shift. It is the energy of the photon that reduces in doing work against the gravitational field. I think something of this nature has been shown in the Pound Rebka experiment. Just after the discovery of gravitational waves we had some people who were involved in it visit our university. I remember asking one of them about this. My question was that though light doesn't need a medium to propagate, it still travels in spacetime, which is affected by gravity, the waves being ripples in spacetime. So does the speed of light not change? He said something to the effect " We legislate everything else using the speed of light which is constant"

Next, piggy has a try to analyze it in different ways.

1. The rule of parallelogram is not applicable to light speed:

Assume a released photon moves in a reference frame, the angle with x axis is ß. See the attached picture.

Then, the component of light speed along x axis is:

A.Cx = c*cos ß

B.Cx = c

C.No one knows.

When someone choose answer A, he is applying the vector calculation rule. It hints that the additive principle of speed might be applicable to light. But the MM experiment as well as the principle of Relativity demonstrates it's not.

That means light speed is a “fake vector”.

Analysis in philosophy:

We know that when acceleration “a” imposed on the true speed vector (that kind of a large rabbit bouncing), the speed will change (ordinary both the magnitude and direction). But when acceleration “a” imposed on the fake speed vector (that kind of light speed), the effect must have a bit different. We know that light can travel in curve near a planet (direction can change). So, the difference should be “the magnitude would not change”.

2. As piggy illustrated ahead, the effect of gravity is causing the contraction of the radius r of the circle kind of standing wave (simplified model), but it doesn’t mean that light speed must change too. If the speed of a released photon which enters the gravitational field changes, there will be two kinds of light speed at one position in the gravitational field.

So, perhaps it will not change.

3. Piggy is not quite sure whether this third method of analysis is appropriate or not. But it seems kinda fun.

Because the controlling element actually is internal energy, we can transfer the research from the gravitational field to the dynamic situation for easier understanding.

Assume a released photon occurred in the infinite remote point and entered into the gravitational field of the Earth with primary velocity c. The situation is equivalent to the research of light speed in a rest reference frame s. When it travels to the position “A”, the situation is equivalent to the research of light speed in a moving reference frame s’1 with the velocity u1; if the released photon travels to the position “B”, the situation is equivalent to the research of light speed in a moving reference frame s’2 with the velocity u2. According to the principle of SR, light speed would not change in different inertial frames.

So, the conclusion is that light speed would not change in gravitational field.

Next, we verify it in logic:

Assume a small stone moves with the velocity v in the rest reference frame s. Reference frame s’1 moves with the velocity u1 while reference frame s’2 moves with the velocity u2. According to the Lorentz transformation of velocity in SR, the velocity of the small stone v1 in frame s’1 as well as v2 in frame s’2 are both different from v in frame s . So, we can expect that the velocity of the small stone would change in the gravitational field.

Have a lovely day, guys. Haha

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

April 19, 2021

Piggy really doesn’t know when the First Order would decide to shout “execute”, and then piggy will disappear entirely in this cosmos. Bounce…

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

First, “light speed” or “the speed of light” is a habitual expression. The expression “the speed of light does not change”~what we mean is the magnitude of the speed of light (the “velocity”) does not change.

We had some discussions in this respect in PHF:

https://physicshelpforum.com/threads/general-vs-special.16046/post-49565

Physicsquest’s comment:

From what little I know, the speed does not change, the frequency does leading to red shift. It is the energy of the photon that reduces in doing work against the gravitational field. I think something of this nature has been shown in the Pound Rebka experiment. Just after the discovery of gravitational waves we had some people who were involved in it visit our university. I remember asking one of them about this. My question was that though light doesn't need a medium to propagate, it still travels in spacetime, which is affected by gravity, the waves being ripples in spacetime. So does the speed of light not change? He said something to the effect " We legislate everything else using the speed of light which is constant"

Next, piggy has a try to analyze it in different ways.

1. The rule of parallelogram is not applicable to light speed:

Assume a released photon moves in a reference frame, the angle with x axis is ß. See the attached picture.

Then, the component of light speed along x axis is:

A.Cx = c*cos ß

B.Cx = c

C.No one knows.

When someone choose answer A, he is applying the vector calculation rule. It hints that the additive principle of speed might be applicable to light. But the MM experiment as well as the principle of Relativity demonstrates it's not.

That means light speed is a “fake vector”.

Analysis in philosophy:

We know that when acceleration “a” imposed on the true speed vector (that kind of a large rabbit bouncing), the speed will change (ordinary both the magnitude and direction). But when acceleration “a” imposed on the fake speed vector (that kind of light speed), the effect must have a bit different. We know that light can travel in curve near a planet (direction can change). So, the difference should be “the magnitude would not change”.

2. As piggy illustrated ahead, the effect of gravity is causing the contraction of the radius r of the circle kind of standing wave (simplified model), but it doesn’t mean that light speed must change too. If the speed of a released photon which enters the gravitational field changes, there will be two kinds of light speed at one position in the gravitational field.

So, perhaps it will not change.

3. Piggy is not quite sure whether this third method of analysis is appropriate or not. But it seems kinda fun.

Because the controlling element actually is internal energy, we can transfer the research from the gravitational field to the dynamic situation for easier understanding.

Assume a released photon occurred in the infinite remote point and entered into the gravitational field of the Earth with primary velocity c. The situation is equivalent to the research of light speed in a rest reference frame s. When it travels to the position “A”, the situation is equivalent to the research of light speed in a moving reference frame s’1 with the velocity u1; if the released photon travels to the position “B”, the situation is equivalent to the research of light speed in a moving reference frame s’2 with the velocity u2. According to the principle of SR, light speed would not change in different inertial frames.

So, the conclusion is that light speed would not change in gravitational field.

Next, we verify it in logic:

Assume a small stone moves with the velocity v in the rest reference frame s. Reference frame s’1 moves with the velocity u1 while reference frame s’2 moves with the velocity u2. According to the Lorentz transformation of velocity in SR, the velocity of the small stone v1 in frame s’1 as well as v2 in frame s’2 are both different from v in frame s . So, we can expect that the velocity of the small stone would change in the gravitational field.

Have a lovely day, guys. Haha

Liqiang Chen

陈力强

April 19, 2021

Piggy really doesn’t know when the First Order would decide to shout “execute”, and then piggy will disappear entirely in this cosmos. Bounce…

给他江门地方黑恶势力钟永康集团及新会一中九一四班谁谁一个超文革赛阎王光荣称号快快全世界全宇宙打靶啦。当今时代，全世界没有什么人能够值得如此殊荣。呵呵

0 Replies

htam9876

1

Reply
Mon 19 Apr, 2021 05:15 pm
Supplementary stuff to the question of the component of light speed along x axis:

Of course, the best answer ever is answer C. But if a guy has the ultimate spirit of exploration, he could have a try to choose answer B. Below is Toppy sir’s humble opinion in PHF:

“The answer to your question is that the velocity component in the x direction is equal to c. This is from Huygen's principle.”

https://physicshelpforum.com/threads/common-misconceptions-in-physics-ii.14486/post-45199

Of course, the best answer ever is answer C. But if a guy has the ultimate spirit of exploration, he could have a try to choose answer B. Below is Toppy sir’s humble opinion in PHF:

“The answer to your question is that the velocity component in the x direction is equal to c. This is from Huygen's principle.”

https://physicshelpforum.com/threads/common-misconceptions-in-physics-ii.14486/post-45199

0 Replies

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