Modern capitalism fully emerged in the early modern period between the 16th and 18th centuries, with the establishment of mercantilism or merchant capitalism.
It has changed a LOT since then.
No doubt that it changed, like every- and anything else.
Perhaps, we Europeans have a different look to when (9th century in the medieval Islamic world) and where (Medieval countries) emerged.
Adam Smith's "mercantile system" referred to economic thoughts and policies from the sixteenth to the late eighteenth centuries, but "capitalistic" merchants had been acting already earlier. (Teh first known German "capitalists", the Fuggers, started there business in the 14th century - following the earlier Italian and French traditions.)