Separate studies involving population dynamics amonf Amerinds were don in the 2000-2005 period by Fegundes and Mabry. The findings were that, fromMDNA and nDNA,there were 9 separate initial Amerind Groups initially arriving from Asia. Then 3 other groups , later arrived. One was the Innuits and two others were Origin indeterminate. (possibly European). Arrivals couldnt be confirmed but left the door open for 16000+. These 9 gene groups developed into 3 to 11 haplotypes and up to 3 clades eaxch. That was a lot of raw dispersion genetic material. Mabry, by genotypic typing, discovered the "bottlenecks that occured in the populations. From the genetic groups and intitial population estimates, it was calculated that 35 to 50 MILLION Amerinds lived in the N and S Americas. (Two other studies, using additional genetic data came up with 90 million).
Mabry then showed that post contact, the populations of Amerinds declined dramatically due to contact with diseases from
1Blacks that arrived via Slave traders via Caribbean islands, and by direct contact with the Europeans.
1521--the population N aand S America was estimated at less than 5 million
1622--the total Amerind population was slightly less than 2 million.
The depraved indifference that "enabled" the diseases (yellow fever, measles, smallpox) was not considered an issue of any consequence by the original European settlers and conquerers. After all, these were mere savages.
"Smallpox was in Hispaniola by 1518. Las Casas said that only one thousand survived the epidemic. It reached Mexico in 1520 when Pánfilo de Narváez arrived. Between the time of Moctezuma's death and La Noche Triste in 1520, smallpox raged in Tenochtitlán. Leaders died within hours of Cortez' retreat. The Aztecs were beaten by smallpox long before they were beaten by Cortez. By 1520, smallpox had also spread to Guatemala. By 1525 or 1526, it was killing people in the Inca empire. Pizarro and his men found a population devastated by this deadly disease . The Spanish were immune, giving credence to their claims of superiority. Both the Spanish and the Amerinds saw the smallpox pandemic as divine punishment for the Amerind way of life. Stunned acquiescence to Spanish "superiority" was seen as the only possible response.
Other diseases were also devastating. Measles were in Mexico and Peru by 1530-31. Typhus may have come to the New World by 1546. There was an influenza epidemic in 1558-59; the European epidemic lasted from 1556 to 1560 and killed 20% of England's population. The Amerinds also had to withstand diphtheria and mumps epidemics. A German missionary in 1699 observed "The Indians die so easily that the bare look and smell of a Spaniard causes them to give up the ghost." Breath instead of smell would have been more accurate! The Amerinds were also inflicted with the African diseases of yellow fever and malaria." Obviously, the vectors of these last two required some more time for settling in before any major epidemics.
The AMreinds were considered as subhumans who , if not useful as servants, could be wiped out passively with contact as the means of dispersive vector.
LAter activities in the US, from the Battle of TAll OAks to the Indian Removal ACt, were mop ups of a population that was almost anihilated .
Historic evidence shows clearly that the deaths of millions of Indians was not an innocent consequence of settlement by Europeans. It was a kind of battle plan in a time when disease vectors were not recognized but things like "tempers and vapours and contamination " were.
Wars, coomon among the AMerinds, were not for the annihilation of whole bloodlines, even the "ar of succession" that set quoted earlier in the Inca empire, didnt result in great death and body counts. The populations understood the need for citizens and slaves. The practices of blood sacrifices were not done in vast numbers to threaten a population. In fact the population growth rates were steady and increasing during the millenia before contact. Weapons that were available werent ones of MAss destruction. However, spread of diseases by contact was, and disease was used (passively) as a tool by Europeans. Gen Stewart is the only one who was identified to have spread smallpox by infected blankets given to Indian villages and then just standing back. Our own history denies this , and its now considered revisionist to try to say otherwise.
The remaining popultions of the Seminoles, Choctaws,Muscogee, Chikasaw Cherokee, and Seminole, are examples of how we , consciously removed and, marched out of their sovereign lands (granted initially to the Indians by earlier treaty) only to hve them die in high percentages on the way to and in Oklahoma. Then we carefully sliced up these remaining landholds and expropriated them.And this was going on until the 1970's.
Depraved indifference is a felony no matter. We as mericans dont have a clear social conscience because our manifest destiny sets up some high sounding principals.