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Portuguese: the language of the future

 
 
Reply Sat 5 Jun, 2004 01:09 pm
Portuguese Today and in the Future
In a Unesco report from 2000 it is stated that Portuguese is spoken by 176 million people worldwide, but this is seen as very gross statistic data. Today it is spoken by more than 206,1 million (not considering Portuguese creoules). Brazil alone as at least 182 million. In Africa there are 13,7 million portuguese speakers. In Europe there are over 10,1 million just in Portugal (not considering Galicia, France, Luxembourg, among others). In Asia, there are only 0,2 million.
The portuguese is a growing language specially in subsaharan Africa, where is is stated that will be the one of the most spoken within 50 years with the growing importance of Angola and Mozambique. It is also taking importance in South America because of Brazil, it is being taught (and it is popular) in the rest of the South American countries that constitutes Mercosul (mercosur). It is an official language of the European Union and Mercosul, among other organizations.

Origins of the Portuguese language
Roman colonization
Although the Iberian Peninsula was inhabited since very before the Roman colonization, very little traces of the native languages persist in the modern Portuguese. The Portuguese language, that has as origin in the Vulgar Latin, developed in the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula (current Portugal and region of Galiza, or Galicia) enclosed in the Roman province of Lusitania. The province of Lusitania splitted into two seperated provinces, Lusitania and Galecia. From 218 BC, with the Roman invasion of the peninsula, and until 9th century, the language spoken in the region was the Romance, a variant of Latin that constitutes an intermediate to the modern Latin languages.

Barbarian invasion
During 409 A.D. to 711, peoples of germanic origin, known by the Romans as Barbarians, installed in the Iberian Peninsula. These Barbarians had very few developed culture and they accepted the culture and language of the peninsula. The effect of these migrations in the spoken language of the population was not uniform, initiating a process of regional differentiation, since each barbarian spoak Latin in a different form.
With the fall of the Roman Empire, the schools had been closed and the former empire did not have more the unifying elements of the language. The Latin was free to modify itself.

The definitive disruption of the linguistic uniformity in the Peninsula will occur later, leading to the formation of well differentiated languages(Gallego-Portuguese, Castillian and Catalan). Some influences of this Era persist in the vocabulary of modern Portuguese especially in words linked to war and violence.

Barbarian origin words
Guerra (war)
Lutar (to fight)
Roubar (to steal)

Moorish invasion
From 711, with the moorish invasion of the Peninsula, Arabic is adopted as main language in the conquered regions, but the population continues to speak Romance. From the 9th to the 11th century, some Portuguese terms appear in the texts written in Latin, but the Portuguese is essentially only spoken in Portugal and Galicia.
Although barbarians and Arabs remained much time in the peninsula, the influence that they had exerted in the language was small, was restricted to the lexicon, therefore the romanization process was very intense. But one can find an huge number of arabic words in portuguese especially related to food, agriculture and placenames of the south.


Arabic origin words
A絣ena (amaryllis)
Alcova (Alcove)
Aldeia (village)
Alecrim (rosemary)
Alicate (pliers)
Alface (lettuce)
Alf⮤ega (customs)
Algarismo(algarism, number)
Alquimia (Alchemy)
Almirante (admiral)
Almofada (cushion)
AlvarἯem> (license)
Alvoro篼/em> (agitation)
­bar (amber)
Argola (ring)
Armaz魼/em> (warehouse)
Arroz (rice)
Azeite (olive oil)
Cabide (hanger)
Damasco (damson plum)
Garrafa (bottle)
Girafa (giraffe)
Jasmim (jasmin)
Jarra (jar)
Javali (wild boar)
Laranja (orange)
Macio (soft)
Marfim (ivory)
Nora (daughter-in-law)
Recife (reef)
Ref魼/em> (hostage)
Saga (Saga)
Sapato (shoe)
Tarefa (task)
Tarifa (tariff)
Xadrez (Chess)
Xerife (xerife)
Tara (tare)

The Rise of the Portuguese language
King Alfonso I establishes the Portuguese Nation that assumed official independence in 1143. The language spoken in this occidental part of the Peninsula was the Gallego-Portuguese who with the time was differentiating itself: in the south, Portuguese, and in the north, Galician, who was suffering more influence from the Castilian for which was annexed. In 1290, king Diniz creates the Escola de Direitos Gerais (School of General Rights) and compels in decree the official use of the Portuguese Language.

The Portuguese discoveries
Between 14th to the 16th centuries, with the Portuguese discoveries, the Portuguese language becomes present in some regions of Asia, Africa and America, suffering local influences.

Asian origin words
ChἯem> (Tea), from Chinese
Jangada (raft), from Malay

Amerindian origin words
Abacaxi (pineapple)
Caju (cashew)
Mandioca (cassava)
Pipoca (popcorn)
Tatu (armadillo)

Sub-saharan Africa origin words
Banana (banana)

The Renaissance
With the Renaissance, increases the number of italian origin words and erudite words of Greek origin, incrising the complexity of Portuguese. The end of the archaic Portuguese is marked by the publication of the Cancioneiro Geral de Garcia de Resende, in 1516.

The Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries
CPLP (Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries) is an international organization grouping the eight independent countries which have Portuguese as official language.

Brazil and Portugal
There are some differences between Brazilian and European Portuguese varieties in vocabulary, pronunciation, and syntax, especially in popular varieties. Often speakers of the Brazilian variety find it hard to understand the European one. By many, this is seen merely as national pride during the creation of the Brazilian republicanism that denied the Portuguese heritage to whom the Brazilian Emperors where attached and because the northeastern regions of Brazil wanted to return to Portugal. Brazilian immigrants in Portugal see no problem understanding the European variety. However, differences are natural in international languages spoken in far-away territories.
Obviously, Brazilian Portuguese is the same language as in Portugal. However, a few words and expressions are written differently (like 'bus' - "?us" (Braz.) = "autocarro" (Port.) ).

Other Languages in Brazil and in Portugal
Portuguese-speaking countries are sometimes divided between those who have Portuguese as national language - Portugal and Brazil - and those for which Portuguese is only an official language, with many others also spoken by the population. In Brazil, there are also some other languages, spoken by Native Americans - however, their importance is quite small. In Portugal, there is another officially recognised language, called Mirandese, spoken by a few thousand people in Northeast Portugal.
Because of immigrants from Eastern Europe, the Russian is used for communication between immigrants in Portugal and by portuguese companies to advertize to this specific market. Immigrants from the Ukrain are the most numerous, and the Ukrainian is widly spoken. Alltought these language are less used when the Portuguese is learned. Using another language, if not a tourist, in Portugal is seen as offensive by the portuguese people, because they don't understand it and the Portuguese language is seen as an historical heritage to be preserved. This appends because Portugal is a mono-linguistic country and they are distrustful to new languages in the country.


Africa and East Timor
In the former Portuguese colonies in Africa, known as Paises Africanos de L�ua Oficial Portuguesa (PALOP), indigenous African languages are also widely spoken.

Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde
In Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde, the most widely-spoken language is a Portuguese creole known as Crioulo.
Tought in Cape Verde, the European Portuguese variety is taking importance, and Portuguese lives alone among its various creoules. But, in Guinea-Bissau, the case is a bit different, Portuguese and its creoules are spoken by 55% of the inhabitants. Portuguese Language itself is only spoken by 11%. Other numerous African languages are the main languages for the rest of the population.

S㯠Tom頡nd Principe
In S㯠Tome and Principe, Portuguese used by the population is Archaic Portuguese, known as Sao Tomean Portuguese. Politicians and the high society uses the modern European Portuguese variety, much like the other PALOP countries. Portuguese Creoules are also found in S㯠Tom頡nd Principe.

Angola
Portuguese is quickly becoming a national language in Angola, rather than only official or as a cohesion vehicle. In the capital, Luanda, Portuguese is the mother language of 75 % of a population of 2,5 million. In the all country, 60% of 12,5 million inhabitants Portuguese is also the main spoken language. There are also other languages in Angola, such as Umbundu, Kimbundu, Kikongo. Some words of that languages were absorved by the Portuguese people, when the retornados returned to Portugal after Angola's independence. Words like iἯem> (yes) and bu鼯em> (many), common in the young and urban Portuguese population has its origin in Angolan languages. Angola recieves several Portuguese and Brazilian televison stations.
Mozambique
Mozambique is between the countries where the Portuguese has the statute of official language, being spoken essentially as second language. In accordance with the Census of 1980, Portuguese was spoken by 25% of the population among 20 other languages (mainly spoken are from the Bantu group), but only 1% considered Portuguese as main language. Currently, due to prestige associated with this language, this situation changed considerably, and the data of the 1997 Census indicate that the current percentage of Portuguese speakers is already of 39,6%.
East Timor
In East Timor the national language is Tetum, which is Austronesian, but heavily influenced by Portuguese. The reintroduction of Portuguese as an official language has caused suspicion and resentment among some younger East Timorese who have been educated under the Indonesian system, and do not speak it. Portuguese in East Timor is spoken by less than 20% of its population. Altought it tends to increase.

Galicia
Galician can be seen as a somewhat castilianized form of Portuguese. Linguists have always recognized the unity of these linguistic varieties (for instance, Corominas, Lindley Cintra, Coseriu, etc), as they were once just the same language and both are relatively conservative varieties. However, in practice, they are treated sometimes as different languages by both populations mainly due to sociolinguistic issues, with works in Galician being translated into Portuguese and vice versa. The current Galician Autonomous Government backs a standard of Galician which distances it from Portuguese and makes it, graphically, more similar to Castilian Spanish. Nevertheless, there is another standard, used in some political circles and universities that basically treats Galician as a Portuguese dialect with minor differences. During the Middle Ages, Galician and Portuguese were undoubtedly the same language, nowadays known as Gallego-Portuguese, a language used for poetic works even in Castille.

Portuguese Language Territories
Territories where Portuguese is spoken throwout the world.


As a national language
Brazil
Portugal
Sao Tome and Principe

As an official language
Angola (considered by 60% of the population as they're own language)
Cape Verde (Portuguese lives exclusivily among various Portuguese origin creoules)
East Timor (spoken by less than 20% of the population)
Guinea-Bissau (Portuguese and its Creoules are spoken by 55% of the population)
Macau, People's Republic of China (2% of the Population sees it as they're own language)
Mozambique (spoken by 39,6% of the population)

Living and unrecognized Portuguese (language or creoules) territories
Ano Bom, Equatorial Guinea (known as Anobon과/strong> or Fᠤ'Amb?trong> -- fala de Ano Bom)
Casamance, Senegal
Daman, India
Galicia, Spain (Officially known as Galego with general spanish influence in the written language)
Korlai, India (Isolated Indian village, Portuguese creoule is known as Kristi)
Malacca, Malaysia (Known as Papi᠋ristang)
Oliven硼/A>, Spain (Portuguese territory invaded by Spain in the 19th century)
Sri Lanka
Tellicherry, India
Uruguay (Known as Portu��/strong>, a mix of portuguese with spanish)

Extinct or endangered Portuguese (language or creoules) territories
Bombay, India
Cananor and Mah鬠India
Chaul, India
Coast of Coromandel, India
Coast of Bengala, India
Cochim and Vaipim, India
Diu, India
Flores, Indonesia
Goa, India
Hong Kong, China (Known as Macaistic)
Java, Indonesia
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Known as Papi᠋ristang)
Mangalor, India
Quilom, India
Singapore (Known as Papi᠋ristang)
Ternate, Ambom and Macassar , Indonesia

New territories where Portuguese is also spoken
Andorra (mostly by portuguese immigrants)
Argentina (mostly by brazilian immigrants)
Bermuda (mostly by portuguese immigrants)
Bolivia (mostly by brazilian immigrants)
Canada (mostly by portuguese immigrants)
Japan ''(spoken by Brazilians of Japanese descent, known as dekasegui)
Jersey (mostly by portuguese immigrants)
Luxembourg (by the portuguese community)
Paraguay (mostly by brazilian immigrants)
Paris,France (by the portuguese community, seen has the 2nd Portuguese City, after Lisbon, because of inmigrants)
South Africa (mostly by portuguese immigrants)
United States especially New Jersey
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Type: Discussion • Score: 3 • Views: 10,926 • Replies: 28
No top replies

 
Craven de Kere
 
  1  
Reply Sat 5 Jun, 2004 02:01 pm
To bem, mas seria otimo se tivesse um prato de comida mineira para comer. Sinto falta.

Como vai?
0 Replies
 
Mr Bandiera
 
  1  
Reply Sat 5 Jun, 2004 02:30 pm
Craven de Kere wrote:
To bem, mas seria otimo se tivesse um prato de comida mineira para comer. Sinto falta.

Como vai?


aaaah, vc é mineiro tb?! Razz
0 Replies
 
Craven de Kere
 
  1  
Reply Sat 5 Jun, 2004 02:36 pm
Nao, sou Americano, mas morei em Brasil varias vezes e ate morei em Minas.

Claro, sinto mas falta das minas do que Minas mas isto e obvio.

Desculpa, nao queria usar accentos.
0 Replies
 
Mr Bandiera
 
  1  
Reply Sat 5 Jun, 2004 05:10 pm
Craven de Kere wrote:
Nao, sou Americano, mas morei em Brasil varias vezes e ate morei em Minas.

Claro, sinto mas falta das minas do que Minas mas isto e obvio.

Desculpa, nao queria usar accentos.


ehheheh, morou aonde? em belo horizonte?
0 Replies
 
Saul
 
  1  
Reply Wed 9 Jun, 2004 05:15 am
Aí brazuca tá tudo numa boa!!!
0 Replies
 
Craven de Kere
 
  1  
Reply Wed 9 Jun, 2004 09:48 am
Mr.Bandiera wrote:

ehheheh, morou aonde? em belo horizonte?


Sim, lembro pouco de BH mas adorei Brasil, passei a maioria do meu tempo em São Paulo.
0 Replies
 
BoGoWo
 
  1  
Reply Wed 9 Jun, 2004 09:51 am
ah Craven; i thought all you did in Brasil was check out the 'fluff'! Shocked
0 Replies
 
Craven de Kere
 
  1  
Reply Wed 9 Jun, 2004 09:51 am
Saul wrote:
Aí brazuca tá tudo numa boa!!!


Que legal, uma galera aqui no site que fala Portugues.
0 Replies
 
Mr Bandiera
 
  1  
Reply Wed 9 Jun, 2004 05:33 pm
Saul wrote:
Aí brazuca tá tudo numa boa!!!


portuga Very Happy
0 Replies
 
Mr Bandiera
 
  1  
Reply Wed 9 Jun, 2004 05:34 pm
BoGoWo wrote:
ah Craven; i thought all you did in Brasil was check out the 'fluff'! Shocked


whats fluff
0 Replies
 
Mr Bandiera
 
  1  
Reply Wed 9 Jun, 2004 05:35 pm
Craven de Kere wrote:
Mr.Bandiera wrote:

ehheheh, morou aonde? em belo horizonte?


Sim, lembro pouco de BH mas adorei Brasil, passei a maioria do meu tempo em São Paulo.


vc adorou o brasil, fala a verdade! Twisted Evil
0 Replies
 
amolitaliano
 
  1  
Reply Sat 12 Jun, 2004 02:37 pm
Espanol
Probablemente los que estén leyendo esto y hablen portugués van a entenderlo. Yo creo que el portugués será un idioma importante pero no tan importante como el espanol. Quizá algún día el portugués y el espanol, porque son tan similares, se conviertan en un solo idioma! Smile

~Ben~
0 Replies
 
Mr Bandiera
 
  1  
Reply Sat 12 Jun, 2004 05:33 pm
Re: Espanol
amolitaliano wrote:
Probablemente los que estén leyendo esto y hablen portugués van a entenderlo. Yo creo que el portugués será un idioma importante pero no tan importante como el espanol. Quizá algún día el portugués y el espanol, porque son tan similares, se conviertan en un solo idioma! Smile

~Ben~


não, não, eu não acredito que tal acntecimento pode se concretizar, devido ao pleno afastamento da população brasileira dos países hispânicos, pelo fato da esmagadora maioria dos brasileiros moram na costa, bem longe dos hispano-falantes, para além de portugal também não receber influência à nível lingüistico da sua vizinha Espanha, e muito menos os países da África e Ásia que falam a língua Portuguesa
0 Replies
 
Craven de Kere
 
  1  
Reply Sat 12 Jun, 2004 07:30 pm
Mr.Bandiera wrote:

vc adorou o brasil, fala a verdade! Twisted Evil


Claro, pois morei 3 vezes no Brasil.
0 Replies
 
Craven de Kere
 
  1  
Reply Sat 12 Jun, 2004 07:32 pm
A idea de combinar as linguas nao va se realizar por causa do nacionalismo que plenamente existe sobre coisas que nem linguas.
0 Replies
 
Mr Bandiera
 
  1  
Reply Sat 12 Jun, 2004 07:39 pm
Craven de Kere wrote:
A idea de combinar as linguas nao va se realizar por causa do nacionalismo que plenamente existe sobre coisas que nem linguas.


claro, e nós nem queremos isso, a língua é o que mais nos difere do resto das Américas Very Happy
0 Replies
 
Craven de Kere
 
  1  
Reply Sat 12 Jun, 2004 07:42 pm
Dizem-se que linguas differe povos mas que até religião.

Merda, começei usar accêntos e vou usar-los completamente errado que nem sempre (aprendi falar Português, mas n_ao a escrever).
0 Replies
 
Mr Bandiera
 
  1  
Reply Sat 12 Jun, 2004 09:38 pm
Craven de Kere wrote:
Dizem-se que linguas differe povos mas que até religião.

Merda, começei usar accêntos e vou usar-los completamente errado que nem sempre (aprendi falar Português, mas n_ao a escrever).


concordo com vc, lingua é a base de uma integração
0 Replies
 
Craven de Kere
 
  1  
Reply Sat 12 Jun, 2004 09:51 pm
Meu (agora ja da para ver que morei bastante em São Paulo), precisamos de mais Brasileiros aqui, sinto falta do seu país.

Tambem espero que voçe permanece, pois preciso manter o meu Português.

Sinto se avontade de me corrigir se tu me ver comitindo erros (e claro, vai ter).
0 Replies
 
 

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