132
   

Why do people deny evolution?

 
 
rosborne979
 
  1  
Mon 30 Dec, 2013 07:47 pm
@gungasnake,
gungasnake wrote:

Per the theory of evolution, the vast bulk of all fossils should be obvious intermediates. In real life, they have yet to find the first one.


Here's the short list. I'm sure we've posted it before, and you've ignored it before. But here it is again.

Quote:
There are many transitional fossils. The only way that the claim of their absence may be remotely justified, aside from ignoring the evidence completely, is to redefine "transitional" as referring to a fossil that is a direct ancestor of one organism and a direct descendant of another. However, direct lineages are not required; they could not be verified even if found. What a transitional fossil is, in keeping with what the theory of evolution predicts, is a fossil that shows a mosaic of features from an older and more recent organism.

Transitional fossils may coexist with gaps. We do not expect to find finely detailed sequences of fossils lasting for millions of years. Nevertheless, we do find several fine gradations of fossils between species and genera, and we find many other sequences between higher taxa that are still very well filled out.

The following are fossil transitions between species and genera:

Human ancestry. There are many fossils of human ancestors, and the differences between species are so gradual that it is not always clear where to draw the lines between them.

The horns of titanotheres (extinct Cenozoic mammals) appear in progressively larger sizes, from nothing to prominence. Other head and neck features also evolved. These features are adaptations for head-on ramming analogous to sheep behavior (Stanley 1974).

A gradual transitional fossil sequence connects the foraminifera Globigerinoides trilobus and Orbulina universa (Pearson et al. 1997). O. universa, the later fossil, features a spherical test surrounding a "Globigerinoides-like" shell, showing that a feature was added, not lost. The evidence is seen in all major tropical ocean basins. Several intermediate morphospecies connect the two species, as may be seen in the figure included in Lindsay (1997).

The fossil record shows transitions between species of Phacops (a trilobite; Phacops rana is the Pennsylvania state fossil; Eldredge 1972; 1974; Strapple 1978).

Planktonic forminifera (Malmgren et al. 1984). This is an example of punctuated gradualism. A ten-million-year foraminifera fossil record shows long periods of stasis and other periods of relatively rapid but still gradual morphologic change.

Fossils of the diatom Rhizosolenia are very common (they are mined as diatomaceous earth), and they show a continuous record of almost two million years which includes a record of a speciation event (Miller 1999, 44-45).

Lake Turkana mollusc species (Lewin 1981).

Cenozoic marine ostracodes (Cronin 1985).

The Eocene primate genus Cantius (Gingerich 1976, 1980, 1983).

Scallops of the genus Chesapecten show gradual change in one "ear" of their hinge over about 13 million years. The ribs also change (Pojeta and Springer 2001; Ward and Blackwelder 1975).

Gryphaea (coiled oysters) become larger and broader but thinner and flatter during the Early Jurassic (Hallam 1968).

The following are fossil transitionals between families, orders, and classes:

Human ancestry. Australopithecus, though its leg and pelvis bones show it walked upright, had a bony ridge on the forearm, probably vestigial, indicative of knuckle walking (Richmond and Strait 2000).

Dinosaur-bird transitions.

Haasiophis terrasanctus is a primitive marine snake with well-developed hind limbs. Although other limbless snakes might be more ancestral, this fossil shows a relationship of snakes with limbed ancestors (Tchernov et al. 2000). Pachyrhachis is another snake with legs that is related to Haasiophis (Caldwell and Lee 1997).

The jaws of mososaurs are also intermediate between snakes and lizards. Like the snake's stretchable jaws, they have highly flexible lower jaws, but unlike snakes, they do not have highly flexible upper jaws. Some other skull features of mososaurs are intermediate between snakes and primitive lizards (Caldwell and Lee 1997; Lee et al. 1999; Tchernov et al. 2000).

Transitions between mesonychids and whales.

Transitions between fish and tetrapods.

Transitions from condylarths (a kind of land mammal) to fully aquatic modern manatees. In particular, Pezosiren portelli is clearly a sirenian, but its hind limbs and pelvis are unreduced (Domning 2001a, 2001b).

Runcaria, a Middle Devonian plant, was a precursor to seed plants. It had all the qualities of seeds except a solid seed coat and a system to guide pollen to the seed (Gerrienne et al. 2004).

A bee, Melittosphex burmensis, from Early Cretaceous amber, has primitive characteristics expected from a transition between crabronid wasps and extant bees (Poinar and Danforth 2006).

The following are fossil transitionals between kingdoms and phyla:

The Cambrian fossils Halkiera and Wiwaxia have features that connect them with each other and with the modern phyla of Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and Annelida. In particular, one species of halkieriid has brachiopod-like shells on the dorsal side at each end. This is seen also in an immature stage of the living brachiopod species Neocrania. It has setae identical in structure to polychaetes, a group of annelids. Wiwaxia and Halkiera have the same basic arrangement of hollow sclerites, an arrangement that is similar to the chaetae arrangement of polychaetes. The undersurface of Wiwaxia has a soft sole like a mollusk's foot, and its jaw looks like a mollusk's mouth. Aplacophorans, which are a group of primitive mollusks, have a soft body covered with spicules similar to the sclerites of Wiwaxia (Conway Morris 1998, 185-195).

Cambrian and Precambrain fossils Anomalocaris and Opabinia are transitional between arthropods and lobopods.

An ancestral echinoderm has been found that is intermediate between modern echinoderms and other deuterostomes (Shu et al. 2004).
0 Replies
 
neologist
 
  1  
Mon 30 Dec, 2013 07:54 pm
@edgarblythe,
edgarblythe wrote:
It has been explained right on these a2k threads for years. I don't intend to repeat it for anybody who has had so many wasted opportunities.
The only reason for continuing to post is for the benefit of newcomers. Ten readers per post is about average.
0 Replies
 
JimmyJ
 
  1  
Mon 30 Dec, 2013 09:57 pm
@spendius,
Quote:
Females don't use separate toilets. Only ladies do that. It is not unknown for feminists to test the law on the matter.


Are you some kind of idiot?
Humans are the only animals in the animal kingdom that use toilets.

Stop being such a buffoon lol
Finn dAbuzz
 
  -3  
Mon 30 Dec, 2013 10:10 pm
@JimmyJ,
JimmyJ wrote:

Are you some kind of idiot?
Humans are the only animals in the animal kingdom that use toilets.


http://cache.pakistantoday.com.pk/2011/10/Elephant-Toilet-e1319086018900-480x238.jpg

http://animalradio.com/images/cat_using_toilet.b.jpg

http://foolishgadgets.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/pigs-on-toilets.jpg
0 Replies
 
jcboy
 
  11  
Tue 31 Dec, 2013 04:33 pm
A new Pew poll shows that 60% of Americans believe the theory of evolution while 33% reject it. Sadly, 24% of that 60% think evolution was caused by a higher power. Belief in evolution is split along party lines with Republicans mostly on the wrong side, as expected. The scariest number is 24. There is a 24 percentage point gap between Democrats and Republicans. It was only 10 percentage points 4 years ago. My theory holds up. Republicans are getting dumber or at least more extreme in their beliefs, probably as a backlash against most of Western Civilization leaving them behind.
spendius
 
  -3  
Tue 31 Dec, 2013 06:20 pm
@jcboy,
Dream on.
JimmyJ
 
  1  
Tue 31 Dec, 2013 06:42 pm
@jcboy,
Lets not forget that most of these people are Ivy league educated.

They have to cater to a certain group of constituents, which is why some of them act dumber than they really are. Did you know that most presidential speeches have to be written at a 4th grade level? Presidents have actually lost voters for sounding TOO intelligent in the past.
neologist
 
  1  
Tue 31 Dec, 2013 07:14 pm
@JimmyJ,
That's why it is so hard for me to talk to you, Jimmy.
JimmyJ
 
  2  
Tue 31 Dec, 2013 07:16 pm
@neologist,
Because you're ignorant and backwards?
anonymously99stwin
 
  -1  
Tue 31 Dec, 2013 08:12 pm
@JimmyJ,
Never thought anyone would ever understand me, what I am JimmyJ, thanks. Smile
0 Replies
 
neologist
 
  1  
Tue 31 Dec, 2013 08:48 pm
@JimmyJ,
I expected the possibility of such a comeback. You may enter 2014 with pride, Jimmy.
JimmyJ
 
  1  
Tue 31 Dec, 2013 08:58 pm
@neologist,
I can enter 2014 with a basic understanding of modern Biology. You, despite all efforts to the contrary, will not.
anonymously99stwin
 
  -2  
Tue 31 Dec, 2013 10:07 pm
@JimmyJ,
Whatever you hateful bastards. Twisted Evil
anonymously99stwin
 
  -1  
Tue 31 Dec, 2013 10:10 pm
@anonymously99stwin,
All hail the Fags.. now what, was I going to say? As I sit here thinking about my laundry.
anonymously99stwin
 
  -1  
Tue 31 Dec, 2013 10:34 pm
@anonymously99stwin,
I'm not serious. Don't take me serious.
spendius
 
  0  
Wed 1 Jan, 2014 06:19 am
@JimmyJ,
Quote:
I can enter 2014 with a basic understanding of modern Biology.


I think a careful perusal of Prof. Aidley's book, The Physiology of Excitable Cells, will show you that you haven't a clue and that your self-complimenting assertion is the utterest tripe.

I will accept though that you writing it excited some of your cells but explaining the mechanics of such a phenomenon is beyond my competence. I think it is irreducibly complex.

The invidious comparison with others seems to excite cells causing erectile tissue throughout the organism to become distended.
spendius
 
  0  
Wed 1 Jan, 2014 07:14 am
@spendius,
You only need observe a lady wearing the latest fashions purchased in Paris in a roomful of frocks from the shops to see how exciting invidious comparisons with others can become.

We now have international firework display competitions to instill national pride from bringing excitable cells, en masse, into a certain congruence when comparing themselves with lesser mortals. In fact there are so many competitions designed to instill national pride from bringing excitable cells, en masse, into a certain congruence when comparing themselves with lesser mortals that I think investors might look at this sector to their advantage. The touchdown or the goal is when the congruence of a mass of excitable cells is at its most fulfilling . The more-so when it is a deciding score near the end of a ding-dong struggle for supremacy.

In a firework display the scarce resources have to be seen to have gone up in smoke. We can only get an idea of who can waste the most by witnessing the event with our own starry eyes. The ads on either side of the screenings begging £3 a month for a starving kid notwithstanding.

It would be useless to compete at shoveling currency notes into a furnace because they can easily be reprinted and the colour and the movement of the bright sparkling lights would not be as effective at exciting those cells which are excited by such things and which express themselves by "oooohing" and "aaaahing" and jumping up and down, clapping the hands together and having what I thought looked very similar to religious fervour on their smug fissogs.

I once saw the bill of lading for The Bounty and there were trunks full of shiny coloured objects, trinkets and gee-gaws to ingratiate the crew with any exotic ladies they might meet and compartments full of shovels, spades, mattocks and the like for the gentlemen.
farmerman
 
  1  
Wed 1 Jan, 2014 08:50 am
@spendius,
some more tired old drivvle from our prince of puntiglio.
Spendi, why not visit some third world country like Wales where you can impress the natives.
Did you buy a first edition at a trunk sale?.

Quote:

We now have international firework display competitions to instill national pride from bringing excitable cells, en masse, into a certain congruence when comparing themselves with lesser mortals. In fact there are so many competitions designed to instill national pride from bringing excitable cells, en masse, into a certain congruence when comparing themselves with lesser mortals that I think investors might look at this sector to their advantage. The touchdown or the goal is when the congruence of a mass of excitable cells is at its most fulfilling . The more-so when it is a deciding score near the end of a ding-dong struggle for supremacy.


That was certainly worth an instant replay.

spendius
 
  1  
Wed 1 Jan, 2014 09:17 am
@farmerman,
You might have shown better manners fm had you ensured that the term en masse was in italics as you might see from my post. When writing in English italics are used to denote terms imported from other languages.

You have made it look as if I don't know that and I do. Just as you dragged an eminent scientist's name through the dirt, a female one too, in order to satisfy yourself, in your professional interests, that Gaia theory is animistic when it isn't.

I know your claque make allowances for your ignorance as long as you keep on telling them what they most wish to hear. For more open-minded and well balanced viewers your ingorance stands out like a chapel hat-peg.
farmerman
 
  0  
Wed 1 Jan, 2014 09:54 am
@spendius,
As long as youre satisfied spendi. I really don't think that many people pay attention to your prattle.
 

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