Honey, like sucrose is a disaccharide mae of two simple sugars. However, because it is a liquid that "ripens" in a sealed comb, honey can pick up C botulinum
spores. Much honey is pasteurized these days but, as set said, the sugar is not a covalent linked compound , its a loose bond, the pasteruiing often messes the flavor and the subtle florl notes are lost by pasteurizing.
The C botulinum spores have never yielded evidence of toxins in lab studies but since "crib deaths" have not eliminated raw honey as a suspected cause, The Pediatrics Societoes recommend that honey (raw) not be fed to kids under a certain age.
We raised bees since I was a small kid and when I was 8 or 10, I would don my little bee bonnet and steal some combs from a working hive and wed go off into the fields and eat the raw unripe honey like candy. I have not, to this date, had anything that approached botulism so I wonder about whether the tox science has anything going for it
Heres an article from U of Fla
Malcolm T. Sanford, Eddie Atkinson, Jeanette Klopchin, and Jamie Ellis2
Medical research has led doctors to suspect that one possible cause of so-called "crib death" or "sudden infant death syndrome" (SIDS) may be infant botulism (food poisoning). Infant botulism is a rare disease (fewer than 100 reported cases per year in the U.S.) which can lead to varying degrees of paralysis. Public health officials believe honey may be a potential source of infant botulism. The Infectious Disease Section and Microbial Diseases Laboratory of the California Department of Health have provided evidence that botulism spores in the immature infant intestinal tract may produce the actively growing stage of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The bacterium, in turn, manufactures a poison that can block nerve impulse transmissions. Healthy adults and children over one year of age have a more mature digestive system that prevents the Clostridium bacteria from surviving.
Botulism spores are found many places in nature. These include in water, soil, dust, improperly processed foods, and even air. The spores are not harmful themselves, but in the absence of oxygen they germinate and the resultant bacteria produce a powerful toxin. This is the reason canned vegetables are heated prior to packing. Bacterial spores in food are destroyed by high temperatures obtained only in the pressure canner (240-250°F). More than 6 hours is needed to kill the spores at boiling temperature (212°F). The toxin is destroyed by heating to 176°F or boiling for 10 minutes to 20 minutes.
Raw agricultural crops, however, are never heated. Many foods, even if heated or processed, once exposed to the air would be susceptible to re-infestation by botulism spores. Cumulative research on infant botulism to date, therefore, suggests that there is an unknown risk factor in feeding any raw agricultural product, including honey, to infants under one year of age.
In a survey of honey in the United States, 10% of honey samples contained botulism spores, and other data suggest an association between honey consumption and infant botulism. That said, botulism toxin has not been found in honey, nor would it be expected to be produced there due to honey's osmotic concentrations. Since honey is a potential and avoidable source of C. botulinum spores, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the National Honey Board (NHB) recommend that honey not be given to infants younger than 12 months of age.