@Amber Lynn Hudson,
Amber Lynn Hudson wrote:
What were the first four civilizations to emerge in the world and what made them unique and what were contributions they made to the world?
There were three major civilizations, Cimmeria, Stygia and Aquilonia. The fourth could be considered "the rest".
Cimmeria - Cimmeria is described as a harsh landscape with rugged mountains and dark shadowy forests. Its inhabitants are called Cimmerians. Their hardiness and military prowess, as well as to their many other impressive skills were well noted. They can climb seemingly unscalable cliffs, track humans and animals with ease, and stalk their prey without making a sound. They are short, dark with light colored eyes, and exceptionally strong. Despite these almost super-human attributes, they are an "uncivilized" and tribal people. Their governing body is vaguely alluded to as the elders, suggesting a sort of tribal oligarchy. The apparent primitiveness of the Cimmerians and their sense of justice is often juxtaposed with the malevolence of the other civilizations.
Aquilonia - Aquilonia would emerge as the most powerful of the early civilizations. The culture of the time has been described as dynamic and its civilizing influence was felt by most of their barbarian neighbors. The people of the time had a mixed heritage and no longer closely resembled their ancestors. Though experts point that this mixed heritage had not weakened them in any way. Slavery was widespread in the early world and many suggest it had the unintended side-effect of slaves mating with their masters and producing bloodlines of mixed heritage in most Kingdoms of the time.
Aquilonia itself contained at least three provinces with somewhat distinct culture and heritage from other Aquilonians. The province of Gunderland to the north of the country did not contain slaves. The people of this province had underwent less interbreeding with other races than any other culture of the time. They resembled the ancient people closer than any of the others and were thought to still auburn-haired and gray-eyed.
From the northern border of Zingara, throughout the Pictish border and to the south of Cimmeria and the east of the Border Kingdoms were the extended Bossonian Marches. The Bossonians descended from a formerly independent race which has been among the first to fall to the early expanders. They had some of the early colonial blood by then but were distinct in appearance. They were thought to be people of "average" height and skin pigmentation, having either gray or brown eyes and their skulls were mesocephalic.
Their position at the borders of civilization with the barbarians never allowed them to advance at the cultural height of other early civilizations. They were mostly farmers, settled in fortified villages and their main concern was the defense of their land from barbarian raids. In effect also protecting Aquilonia in general from facing invasions by Picts or Cimmerians. Centuries of barbarian wars led to the Bossonians being particularly stubborn combatants and their defense techniques were impenetrable by the direct charges favored by barbarian military commanders.
To the south the province of Poitain had borders with Zingara. The relatively peaceful relations between the two civilized Kingdoms allowed for people and goods to constantly flow through the borders. Interbreeding with the Zingarans, it is believed, led to the people of Poitain being predominantly dark-haired and brown-eyed.
Stygia - Not much is known or written about them but it is believed to be the old Persian name for Turkestan. A Turkish/Persian land, possibly referring to the Timurid Empire, the Sassanid Empire, or the Mughal Empire. The name derives from Turan, the areas of Eurasia occupied by speakers of Ural-Altaic languages. The names of the various Turanian cities (e.g. Aghrapur, Sultanapur, Shahpur) are often in Persian language. King Yezdigerd is named after Yazdegerd III, ruler of the Sassanid Empire. The name of King Yildiz means star in the Turkish language. The city of Khawarizm takes its name from Khwarezm, and Khorusun from Khorasan.
The others were very small tribal bands in the outlying areas with no true central civilization. The Picts may have been the largest of the other early civilization.
I certainly hope that helps you in your assignment.