Or that the US has made the equivalent of billions over collecting from the Haitians the "costs" of the many US military incursions into Haiti.
Haiti–United States relations (1804–1914)
After Haiti gained its independence from France in 1804, through slave rebellion, the pro-slavery south worried this event could influence slaves in the US, and America refused to recognize Haiti's independence until 1862. President Andrew Johnson suggested annexing the island to secure influence over Europe in the Caribbean. The US government never followed through, but did post active military on the island during this period. Through the nineteenth century, people who were mixed-race and blacks often entered into conflicts and called on foreign intervention. During this period according to historian Hans Schmidt, the U.S. Navy sent ships to Haiti 19 times between 1857 and 1913 to "protect American lives and property" until the United States finally occupied Haiti in 1915.:330–331 One example of a US-Haiti conflict was the Môle Saint-Nicolas affair.
Occupations of Haiti by the United States (1915–1934)
Main article: United States occupation of Haiti
From 1915 to 1934 the U.S. Marines occupied Haiti. Prior to the occupation, the U.S. military took control of the banks and collected $500,000 to hold in New York. The Haitian constitution was written in a manner that prevented foreign entities from owning land or operating in Haiti. However, as a result of the occupation, the United States had influenced the Haitian government to rewrite the constitution to repeal an 1804 provision that forbade foreigners from owning land in Haiti. This occupation impacted the nation's economy as well as the people's self-image and independence. Ultimately, Haitians united in resistance of the U.S. occupation and U.S. forces left in 1934. Left behind was a newly trained Haitian Army (the Garde) consisting of mostly black soldiers and mulatto officers, who dominated political office until 1947.
U.S. interventions in Haiti (1957–2005)
From 1957 to 1971, Francois Duvalier governed Haiti under a repressive dictatorship, but some argue the United States tolerated the regime because it was staunchly anti-Communist and a counterbalance to Communist Cuba during the Cold War. [citation ] When Duvalier died, his son, Jean-Claude ("Baby Doc") took over and maintained many of his father's policies.:3–4
The Reagan administration forced Baby Doc to leave in 1986, and when a repressive military dictatorship arose, President Reagan suspended aid. The George H.W. Bush Administration also embargoed and then blockaded Haiti, suspending all but humanitarian aid.:4
After the fall of the Duvalier family and other military regimes, Jean-Bertrand Aristide was elected in 1990, but he was toppled in a coup 7 months later. From 1991–1994 the Clinton Administration imposed an economic blockade, which further impoverished the country, and eventually the Clinton Administration intervened militarily in 1994 to restore Aristide to power.:4 U.S. support for Aristide waned following corruption concerns, and a February 2004 armed rebellion led to his exile.:4
After Rene Preval succeeded Aristide, aid flowed again to Haiti, totaling $1.5 billion from 1990 to 2005.:7