Way too wordy (47 words) , and your cases/tenses don't agree. You have to edit for it to be grammatically correct, forget about the content. Starting with verb 'teach' - Present tense(you use 'Today" so it has to be present tense) 'teach' requires CAN (not 'could').
"Today, philosophy departments TEACH as much math and logic as they CAN, creating....
The rest of the paragraph is just wordy, and a bit hyperbolic. If I was editing your copy but trying to retain your 'voice' in a byline, I'd tighten it up to...
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Today, philosophy departments teach as much math and logic as they can, creating an impression that a "mathematically-inept" student has no future in philosophy. This isn't surprising, given that the many contemporary philosophers also believe philosophy and mathematics are intertwined.
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Now - a quick lesson in 'tight' writing. Unsupported assertions are a big no-no, and your paragraph is full of them. If you're going to use phrases like .. "overwhelming majority" you'd better be ready with your facts and figures to prove your point . A 'majority' is slightly more than half of something. So what is an "overwhelming" majority? 90%? 52%? How many of these "contemporary philosophers" are there? 12? 12,000? If you don't know, and don't know where to find out - don't try to fudge it with extra words ;-)
If I was editing your paragraph for a local newspaper with no byline to worry about, and no time to track down the metrics, I'd whack it way down to...
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Contemporary philosophers believe comfort with numbers to be a job requirement, which explains why college philosophy departments often include math and logic in their curriculum.
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[25 words - +/- half of the original - and nothing that absolutely needs attribution or footnoting ;-) I've indicated it's 'today' (contemporary) and not something in the past - and I've implied a majority (often) without actually having to slog through stats and figures]
Hope this helps you. Remember - fewer words (not more) add clarity.
Never make an assertion you can't prove.