Just about any vegetable will work with pasta. Shop for them in season. Compare prices of fresh produce to frozen produce. When fresh is cheaper, buy lots of it and freeze it. When frozen is cheaper, stock up your freezer. I do the same with fruit.
Did you know that you can freeze garlic and ginger? I buy lots of it when it is on sale, chop it up and put it in sandwich sized plastic bags formed into a long roll. As I need some garlic or ginger in my cooking, I just break off a chunk from the frozen roll and return the rest to the freezer. No more spoiled heads of garlic and ginger isn't such a chore to peel and use when I want it. You can do the same with bell peppers. Buy them on sale, slice them up, spread in a single layer on a tray and store in the freezer for 24 hours before packing them into plastic bags. You can do the same with berries, pineapple and a few other fruits.
What you can do is cook up a large batch of pasta until it is just slightly undercooked. Split it into portion sizes and store in containers in your refrigerator.
After you've cooked your veggies and warmed up your sauce, add the pasta to finish cooking it.
Another thing you can do to add some variety is try using some of your veggies as a sauce by pureeing them. Pureed butternut squash, some veggie or chicken broth and some toasted walnuts or pecans make a great pasta variety.
If you have leftovers, rather than eating them for several days until you get bored with it, pack them into serving sizes for the freezer. Those days when money is tight, you'll have a freezer full of great leftovers to choose from.