The idea of warfare has had an eerie and intimate relationship with religion. History has been studded with overtly religious conflicts such as the Crusades, the Muslim conquests, and the Wars of Religion that dominated the politics of France in the sixteenth century. Although these have usually been characterized as wars in the name of religion, rather than wars conducted in a religious way, a historian, Natalie Zemon Davis, has uncovered what she calls "rites of violence" in her study of religious riots in sixteenth century France. These constituted "a repertory of actions, derived from the Bible, from the liturgy, from the action of political authority, or from the traditions of popular folk practices, intended to purify the religious community and humiliate the enemy and thus make him less harmful." Davis observed that the violence was "aimed at defined targets and selected from a repertory of traditional punishments and forms of destruction."8 According to Davis, "even the extreme ways of defiling corpses--dragging bodies through the streets and throwing them to the dogs, dismembering genitalia and selling them in mock commerce--and desecrating religious objects," had what she called "perverse connections" with religious concepts of pollution and purification, heresy and blasphemy.9
An anthropologist, Stanley Tambiah, showed how the same "rites of violence" were present in the religious riots of South Asia.10 In some instances innocent bystanders would be snatched up by a crowd and burned alive. According to Tambiah, these horrifying murders of defenseless and terrified victims were done in a ritual manner, in "mock imitation of both the self-immolation of conscientious objectors and the terminal rite of cremation."11 In a macabre way, the riotous battles described by Davis and Tambiah were religious events. But given the prominence of the rhetoric of warfare in religious vocabulary, both traditional and modern, one could also turn this point around and say that religious events often involve the invocation of violence. One could argue that the task of creating a vicarious experience of warfare--albeit one usually imagined as residing on a spiritual plane--is one of the main businesses of religion. http://www.ssrc.org/sept11/essays/juergensmeyer.DOC
- Amerindian Trophy Taking
Women are raped because they symbolize their communities and the men of the
community are targeted through women’s bodies.http://www.glow-boell.de/media/de/txt_rubrik_2/Ndeye_Sow_FGmai06.pdf
to humiliate the enemy " especially the male enemies by showing them that. they are not able to protect their female members. Sexual abuse is calculated
systematic raping of women and girls, sometimes called genocidal rape, has been used in
war to humiliate the enemy and undermine its strength as a nation through impregnating
its women and thus reducing the purity of the race (Peterson and Runyan, 1999).http://burmalibrary.org/docs3/Lisa_Brooten_dissertation-ocr.pdf
UN and international organizations say that rebels use rape as 'a weapon of war,' and the purpose of it is to discourage and humiliate the enemy, and ultimately harm the women so that women become infertile. Some say this form of violence as "another form of genocide." http://gphoto.exblog.jp/8297615/
To sum up: Rape is definitely No. 1 on this list
Then scalping, cannibalism, hostage-taking. Ridiculing.
Killing is not enough, and these forms of humiliation are like religious rites.