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Benham's disk, Fechner colors! A true explanation of a two hundreds years old question!

 
 
Reply Fri 3 Jun, 2022 10:28 am
There's no way you'll understand how the Benham’s disk produces the colors if you don’t have a true explanation of how the light produces the colors in general. Since the explanation of the contemporary science is an utter nonsense, therefore every explanation of the Benham’s disk is an utter nonsense, too.

Hence, to answer this question, I will first give you a true explanation of how the light makes the colors appear.
For the colors to appear, the light must experience on its way of propagation a resistance of a more or less transparent matter. The most impressive example is an opalite stone:

https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-02606d512ed3ddbfecc71b43ed698cb3-pjlq

This is a real photograph of a longish opalite stone (it’s two centimeters long in reality) illuminated with white LED lamp from the right.
When you look at this stone in a half dark room, you see no colors at all. You see approximately this image:

https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-2669d1277b86dfbb930083d83074ef17

The opalite is a kind of glass. With no additives in it, it is colorless and transparent just like the ordinary glass. But when additives in the form of fine powder are added, then colors appear in it. The last drawing shows how the powder is distributed in the stone from the photograph. On the right there are very little additives. As we go to the left, the concentration increases.

Let me jump for a moment to something else. When a body moves through space filled with air, then higher pressure is created in front of it, while lower pressure behind it. The higher pressure is Plus, the lower pressure is Minus. I use to call it the ‘principle of the arrow’ (− >—> +).

https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-3d22dfdeddc8a2b388735be57e0c9875

The greater the velocity of the body is, the stronger is the Plus in front of it as well as the Minus behind it.
This principle can also be found in the so-called Bernoulli’s principle (please see THE GREATEST HOAX IN THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE! (Part 2) https://able2know.org/topic/559439-1).

Moreover, the same principle is also present in the light when it encounters resistance of a more or less transparent matter on its way of propagation. The front of the light turns yellow-red which is the result of a higher light-pressure, while the rear of the light turns violet-cyan which is the result of a lower light-pressure.

Look at these beams obtained by means of a diffraction grating. The arrow in the image is added by me (source Wikimedia):

https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-435b09bd1c2e77583593220308303b46-pjlq

Regarding this image, I claim that these colors wouldn’t have appeared if there is no air surrounding the diffraction grating. In other words, the air is also an inevitable actor in this performance. If the grating is placed in an absolute vacuum, then no colors will emerge. The white light will remain white after passing through it. An absolute vacuum is hard to achieve. But it would be a sufficient proof if the colors get paler in conditions close to an absolute vacuum.

Look also at this drawing:

https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-cc057d95b469029522337e283c20e407-pjlq

This is what is happening when white light passes through a chromatic convex lens. Before the focal point there is a friction between the light-front and the air, therefore higher yellow-red light-pressure here (marked with arrows without tails). After the focal point there is friction between the light-rear and the air, hence lower violet-cyan light-pressure (marked with arrows without heads).

That is the truth about the convex lens. The image you can see in the textbooks when the so-called chromatic aberration is discussed is a shameless lie of the contemporary physics.

Let me ask you something regarding the things I just said. How come the colors suddenly change their frequencies (colors are EM-waves with different frequencies, aren’t they???!!!) in a point far from the refraction surface?! Let me hear your explanation of this experiment!

Now, let’s get back to the Benham’s disk. First, let’s consider this kind of disk:

https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-72a2da0d83d91e57cde751938c403e8b-pjlq

I call it double plane spiral, because there are two spirals that interwine. If we place it on a spinning top and then spin it clockwise, we see only circles which move outward like waves when we drop a stone in still water (figure a below). However, when we spin it counter-clockwise, then we see circles which move toward inside (figure b below).

https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-feaeecd9ad673277e6666d162d137e5e-pjlq

If we look carefully at the disc during its spinning clockwise, we see reddish circles appear along the outer edges of the white circles as long as the disk is spinning fast, and as the spinning is slowing down, the circles turn into yellow (the experiment should be carried out near a window through which daylight comes in, but not directly from the sun). Along the inner edges of the white circles appear cyan circles as long as the spiral is turning fast, and as the speed decreases, the circles turn into blue-violet (in the figure (a) below is shown what is happening when the disk is turning slower).

But look, the same is happening when the disk is spinning counter-clockwise, only it is now reversed. The reddish and the yellow circles appear along the inner edges of the white circles, while the cyan and the blue-violet circles appear along the outer edges of the white circles (figure (b) below).

https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-784a7b5f70bdcfd698e332835ddcd975-pjlq

We see that here recurs the same principle as in the previous phenomena: the yellow and the red color appear at the front, while the blue-violet and the cyan at the rear side. For, when the circles are moving outwards, then the outer edges of the white circles are the front and the inner edges are the rear of the light.

We know that the light is reflected only from white surfaces. Thereby the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. However, this applies only when the surface is still. If it is moving, then the light gets an additional angle in the direction of motion, thus the angle of reflection becomes greater. [The video game “Pong” also incorporates this reality.] So the light gets an additional friction with the air which is responsible for the reddish color at the front and the cyan color at the rear when the disk is spinning faster, but also for the yellow color at the front and the blue-violet at the rear when the disk is spinning slower.

Finally, this is the Benham’s disk in its usual form:

https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-85ff3718956112aa1f32e884f1465fb4

When the disk is spinning clockwise, then we see approximately the colors as shown in the figure (a) below. However, when the disk is spinning counter-clockwise, then we see the colors as shown in the figure (b).

https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-5a455e13ab1786c882dcd423612d955c

Look please at this segment of the disk:

https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-6adde50a72a0385742d7e7f5c67f73de

It is like a fork entering the darkness (i.e. the air without light in it). From the “tines” of this fork the light is reflected with an increased angle of reflection toward the air of the darkness when the disk is turning clockwise.

So, what is my assertion regarding this disk?
There will be no colors if there is no air around the disk. The emergence of colors follows here, as everywhere else, the principle of the arrow.

See also:

Why is the sky blue? How does light make colors appear?
https://able2know.org/topic/555660-1

The greatest hoax in the history of science! (Part 1)
https://able2know.org/topic/555965-1

What is an achromatic doublet?
https://able2know.org/topic/556927-1
 
engineer
 
  4  
Reply Fri 3 Jun, 2022 01:09 pm
@Mitko Gorgiev,
Mitko Gorgiev wrote:

So, what is my assertion regarding this disk?
There will be no colors if there is no air around the disk.

Given that the standard explanation is that the different cones that perceive color in the eye react at different speeds, you should test your hypothesis and publish the results.

I will say that this statement seems pretty off to me.
Mitko Gorgiev wrote:
Thereby the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. However, this applies only when the surface is still. If it is moving, then the light gets an additional angle in the direction of motion, thus the angle of reflection becomes greater.

The speed of light is such that the surface speed is insignificant. The idea that the movement of the surface impacts the angle of incidence is difficult to credit.

Here is the standard explanation
Quote:
When you gaze at one place on the spinning disk, you are looking at alternating flashes of black and white. When a white flash goes by, all three types of cones respond. Your eyes and brain see the colour white only when all three types of cones are responding equally. The fact that some types of cones respond more quickly than others and that some types of cones keep responding longer than others leads to an imbalance that partially explains why you see colours.

The colours vary across the disk because the black arcs have different lengths, so that the flashing rate they produce on the retina is also different.


Mitko Gorgiev
 
  0  
Reply Fri 3 Jun, 2022 03:16 pm
@engineer,
Wasn't science based on experiments and religion on beliefs?!
Where are the experiments which support the story that you have linked? Or is it just a belief, that is, a religion?!

I can disprove that story immediately. When the Benham's disk presented in my article is turning clockwise, then the red/yellow appear on the inner part, while the cyan/blue-violet on the outer part of the disk. However, when the disk is turning counter-clockwise, then it is reversed.

Hence, if the speed of alternating black and white flashes is responsible for the colors, how come the yellow/red and the cyan/blue-violet have exchanged places only by turning the disk in the opposite direction???

Quote:
The speed of light is such that the surface speed is insignificant.


I can disprove this very easily.
You don't see any colors on a computer generated Benham's disk. Do you know why? Because the computer screen itself is the source of the light.

The light has to come from outside the disk and get reflected from it if you want to see colors.

Moreover, the colors change depending of the turning speed, that is, as the spinning top slows down (red turns into yellow, cyan turns into blue-violet ). I have explained it in my post.

engineer
 
  2  
Reply Sat 4 Jun, 2022 10:27 am
@Mitko Gorgiev,
Mitko Gorgiev wrote:

Hence, if the speed of alternating black and white flashes is responsible for the colors, how come the yellow/red and the cyan/blue-violet have exchanged places only by turning the disk in the opposite direction???

Because the duration and order of the black and white strobe are opposite so it interacts with the rods and cones in the eye in an opposite fashion.

Your hypothesis states that there is actually a color shift. The accepted answer is that there is a perceived color shift due to how the eye works, but no actual color shift. The simple test of this is to use a high-speed camera to capture the image. If you are right, you should see color on the generated image since the eye is not involved, but when you do this experiment, the captured image doesn't show any color. This is a definitive experiment. Benham's disk creates the illusion of color because of how it interacts with the eye. It does not actually produce a shift in the light spectrum.
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