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Sat 9 Mar, 2019 10:23 pm

In ancient times, people stood on the ground and asked a question: how big is the ground? They never got an explicit concept until they climbed high enough in the third dimension.

Now, people wander in the cosmos and ask a similar question: how big is cosmos?

Maybe one more dimension in physics one percent more explicit in cosmos. And this dimension should not be a length dimension again but a state dimension.

The current situation in physics (or cosmology) is separated. Quark theory a field, anti matter a field, dark matter a field, background microwave a field, model of cosmos a field, Relativity a field, QM a field…

In fact, cosmos is just that one thing.

Watch the series of numbers below:

∞,…,-n,…, -3.222xxx,… -2, -1, 0, +1, + 2,… +3.222xxx, … +n, …∞

It contains zero point, contrary, similar, certain and uncertain, infinite, with border.

It demonstrates a state dimension might exist in cosmos.

X4 Theory is to research the state dimension in real cosmos and try to relate everything in cosmos together in the state dimension. It initiated four dimension spacial physics and research space and time in different matter worlds. X4 matter cycle model of cosmos pointed out the back ground microwave is the border of cosmos.

Next, watch the homogeneous coordinate in projection geometry: (X1, X2, X3, X4). The component X4 is just alike a special dimension. So, we might try to use this mathematical (geometric) method to represent the state dimension.

X4 concept was first delivered for discussion in Physics Help Forum. But it turned out that the forum caters to textbook

The latest X4 Theory (four dimension spacial physics) is now deposited in Mendeley.

X4 Theory address such questions as below:

The relationship between the state dimension and the time dimension; defining the state dimension from the angle of QM (it will come out that QM is the issue in four dimensional space and it describes the uncertain aspect of cosmos); defining four dimensional (physical) space and induce an equation to denote the relation between four dimensional (physical) space and three dimensional space; Schordinger equation in four dimensional space and the suggestion of probability wave function distribution field; SR in four dimensional space; why light speed C is a constant in SR (three dimensional space ineffective); why the mass of a released photon equals to its static mass; the X4 state of released photon; exceeding light speed in four dimensional space; what’s electric charge; why unit charge does not change following the movement of particle; nonstandard model of basic particle; microscopic physical explanation of inversion of charge; why the flying track of released photon might be helical; the issue of anti photon; three dimension physical space and radius of basic particle; explanation of the phenomenon of contraction of proton in u Hydrogen; four dimension physical space (X4 space) and wave - particle duality; the physical meaning of momentum space in QM; four dimension spacial concept of current; why magnetism has two poles (one thing two aspect, no magnetic charge existing in nature); the calculation of the radius of electron and geomagnetism as well as the flipping of magnetic poles; solar magnetism and the cause of sun spot; the united principle of gravity and electrostatic force (three dimension physical space curved and four dimension physical space curved); similar matter in four dimensional space (dark matter); the cause of space expansion; X4 matter cycle model of cosmos (border of cosmos); X4 model of neutron and strong interaction; why neutron star generates extremely strong magnetism; why neutron star emits X ray; the tunnel effect in QM in fact is the four dimension spacial effect; induce the time-state equation and explain the relation between the state dimension and the time dimension; explain why the symbol - t has no physical meaning; what’s the physical meaning of inversion of time; why the differential form of time dt is the same in any matter world; etc.

Thank you.

@htam9876,

X4 Theory acknowleges cosmos has a beginning and an end, just alike everything.

The Hubble Law only demonstrates that the receding velocity of galaxy is in proportion to distance , but we can not say that cosmos is accelerated expanding. According to calculation of X4 Theory, e.g. galaxy2 is further away than galaxy1 from us, when galaxy1 recedes to the position of galaxy2, the receding velocity will remain unchanged. It will not reach the current velocity of galaxy2. It's called constant velocity expansion of the visible world in X4 Theory.

Thank you.