2
   

Global Warming, Pollution, and Politics

 
 
Reply Mon 29 Jun, 2009 11:54 pm
Well, with the need to re-industrialize the United States and the potential and current dangers of both pollution and global warming, what is the best way to go about this? Obviously the proposed carbon tax is a hand out to current industrial entities and will do little to address the problems with pollution. This idea is doomed for failure. The continuation of bleeding tax dollars for highway projects for congested inner city traffic and air travel continues to display a failure to plan for the future. The American transportation system is not sustainable and funds must be shifted to revolutionary transportation systems. These are just a couple of examples of poor planning and the domination of corporate interests in the political realms.

So I ask, how should the country proceed in both industrial development and transportation that addresses both the pollution problem and global warming. Obviously, the subject is of importance to the entire world as different countries share the same water and atmosphere. Should there be a global emphasis on coming to a consensus for the direction of world development? Or should this problem be address on more local basis? What form of government would best be suited to protecting the environment (e.g. libertarian, communist, democratic, republic)?

Anyway, that should be a good place to begin for a very broad topic. If it becomes too broad I will break it up into more focused threads.
  • Topic Stats
  • Top Replies
  • Link to this Topic
Type: Discussion • Score: 2 • Views: 9,642 • Replies: 64
No top replies

 
BrightNoon
 
  1  
Reply Tue 30 Jun, 2009 02:05 am
@Theaetetus,
I don't mean to steal your thunder T., but the first thing needed to solve these problems is the realization that anthropogenic global warming is not occuring and that the natural climatic changes that are occuring do not present nearly the threat which Al Gore's animation of Miami underwater would suggest.

Basic evidence of this claim, which I will detail later (its a bit late on the east coast):

1. While there is a correlation between atmospheric CO2 levels and atmospheric temperature, it is not as it appears on cursory examination: as we got in Al Gore's propoganda. Increases in temperature have always preceded increases in CO2; likely because sea water contains more dissolved CO2 than is in the atmosphere and releases more when warmer. This explanation also accounts for the delay between rising temperature and rising CO2 that's evident in the record; i.e. oceans take centuries to warm or cool in response to changing atmospheric temperatures, as water has a very high specific heat.

2. CO2 is a very insignificant greenhouse gas. Water vapor accounts for well over 90% of all greenhouse warming. Moreover, human emmited CO2 accounts for a tiny fraction, well under 10%, of CO2 produced on earth and released into the atmosphere, which comes mainly from geothermal activity and micro-organisms.

3. The 'incredible' and 'unprecedented' rise in atmospheric temperature over the last century and a half is fictional. That data begins around the Monder minimum, one of the coldest periods in the last 10,000 years. In other words, the increase is more of a return to norality than a exceptional event.

4. Even this increase is suspect, because these measurements are based on ground temperature, in many cases at urban sites where there is a definite and well documented 'heat island' effect. In the last 25 years, satellite imagery shows virtually no increase in atmospheric temperature, as woukld be the case in there were greenhouse warming.

5. Finally, there is no a consenses amoung relavent scientists in the field. According to recent polls, almost 40% were either not sure about anthropogenic global warming, or were convinced that it did not exist.

More to come...night
salima
 
  1  
Reply Tue 30 Jun, 2009 03:24 am
@BrightNoon,
BrightNoon;73565 wrote:
I don't mean to steal your thunder T., but the first thing needed to solve these problems is the realization that anthropogenic global warming is not occuring and that the natural climatic changes that are occuring do not present nearly the threat which Al Gore's animation of Miami underwater would suggest.
More to come...night


i dont know if humanity is to blame or not, and that also makes me wonder if we can do anything about it. so we have to look at who is pushing for the proposed changes in trying to curb pollution and how will they benefit by them. some of the policies may be worth doing even if they wont have any effect on global warming. i would really like to think we are not significant enough to cause an ice age-there is such a thing as too much power.
hoping you will share your sources, and looking forward to update.

as far as the government, i am one of those who subscribe to the idea that any form of government would work if it was run by responsible human beings, but that hasnt happened yet. i think any one form of government you might want to choose known to man can botch it up equally well.
0 Replies
 
Elmud
 
  1  
Reply Tue 30 Jun, 2009 05:11 am
@Theaetetus,
I wonder if Henry Fords invention would fall into Einsteins quote, "It is appallingly clear that our technology has surpassed our humanity". We have transportation, and that is a good thing, but, very expensive.
salima
 
  1  
Reply Tue 30 Jun, 2009 08:30 am
@Elmud,
Elmud;73592 wrote:
I wonder if Henry Fords invention would fall into Einsteins quote, "It is appallingly clear that our technology has surpassed our humanity". We have transportation, and that is a good thing, but, very expensive.



and in india our technology is surpassing our infrastructure. there are more cars than their are parking spaces and more motor scooters than there are roads. everyone says 'the roads are bad' but i always say it is only bad if you are driving-when i walk they are fine, and i dont see the cows or buffaloes or donkeys having any trouble either. the bullock carts and the tongas (horse drawn carriages) get by just fine. i think rather than building more roads we should get rid of the automobiles. but i know it is only wishfulthinking-in my utopia there are no gasoline engines. and no cars, only large vehicles like buses, trains, semis. i can dream anyway...
Aedes
 
  1  
Reply Tue 30 Jun, 2009 11:57 am
@Theaetetus,
Brightnoon your contentions are rendered moot by a towering opus of research to the contrary.

Be that as it may, we don't even need to invoke anthropogenic global warming to justify policy changes. The economic and political benefits of eschewing fossil fuels and the health benefits of decreasing pollution are justification enough.
0 Replies
 
Theaetetus
 
  1  
Reply Tue 30 Jun, 2009 01:01 pm
@Theaetetus,
Bright Noon,

Sure Al Gore has been a major spokesperson for global warming, but that does not mean that he is the definitive voice of the issue. Most top atmospheric and oceanic scientists agree that humans are contributing to climate change. But in many ways that is besides the point, and fails to see the major issue with environmental change--pollution. Most of the processes that contribute to global warming also foul finite resources like air, water, and land.
RDRDRD1
 
  1  
Reply Wed 1 Jul, 2009 09:58 am
@Theaetetus,
Bright Noon wishes not to have this discussion. When he can establish his superior climate science credentials, fine. Until then, if he chooses not to discuss the topic he ought to be polite and move on.

Leaving aside the protests of the Flat Earth Society and borrowing a page from Lovelock, I think we're on the verge of accepting "sustainable retreat." We have to begin exploring ways to grow smaller, to curb consumption and to achieve some equitable balance with the "have nots."

A big part of the future involves decarbonization, shedding the carbon economy. It is entirely possible once some powerful lobbies are pushed aside and, the best part, there's a great deal of wealth to be generated in the process. We don't have to go to sackcloth and ashes to achieve this.

That said, we have to recognize that we're going to begin feeling what's happening in the most distant corners of the world as we never have before. Can't be stopped, can't be helped. That's because climate change is just one element of a web of inter-related challenges that will have to be met if we're to maintain our institutions and way of life. These include desertification, deforestation, air/land/water pollution, resource exhaustion, species extinction, nuclear proliferation, terrorism and global security imbalances (there are others).

How are we going to solve these? In part by recognizing the common threads in their creation and growth - overpopulation, over-exploitation of resources and the stubborn continuation of 19th century capitalist industrialism in a 21st century environment.

And what if we don't solve these and soon? Here's an excellent, 3-part documentary on what lies in store:

CBC Radio | Ideas | Features | Climate Wars

The author, Gwynne Dyer, has served as an officer in three navies, the US Navy among them. He has a doctorate in war studies from the University of London. He has been a lecturer at the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst (Britain's West Point) and at Oxford. He brings a deliberately calm and understated approach to his work. Dyer, relying on an incredible number of interviews with the best and brightest political, scientific and military minds, explains what the Pentagon and British Ministry of Defence understand - that, the effects of climate change already happening along with the associated and looming freshwater crisis, will likely cause a collapse in global food stocks, particularly in the more populated and also nuclear-armed nations of China and India.

Listen to these, if you dare. You're bound to find them fascinating - and disturbing.
0 Replies
 
Elmud
 
  1  
Reply Wed 1 Jul, 2009 07:28 pm
@salima,
salima;73662 wrote:
and in india our technology is surpassing our infrastructure. there are more cars than their are parking spaces and more motor scooters than there are roads. everyone says 'the roads are bad' but i always say it is only bad if you are driving-when i walk they are fine, and i dont see the cows or buffaloes or donkeys having any trouble either. the bullock carts and the tongas (horse drawn carriages) get by just fine. i think rather than building more roads we should get rid of the automobiles. but i know it is only wishfulthinking-in my utopia there are no gasoline engines. and no cars, only large vehicles like buses, trains, semis. i can dream anyway...

I guess what stands out to me, other than the obvious pollution ,especially in the big cities, that automobiles produce, is the human lives that are lost, and the animals that you see laying along side of the roads. These two thousand pound missiles not only produce poison into the atmosphere, but they kill as well. I just don't think they're natural. But, I drive one too. Maybe one day, we'll have a different way of transportation.
BrightNoon
 
  1  
Reply Wed 1 Jul, 2009 11:28 pm
@Elmud,
I am not a climate scientist, but the arguments and facts that I presented were taken from a report created by climate and other scientists. Below is the report. Rather than summarize again some of the material, I'll suggest that you look it over yourselves.

http://www.oism.org/pproject/GWReview_OISM600.pdf

Associated with the report is a petition signed by these scientists, who demand that these findings be acknowledged.

The following is a very incomplete list of the signatories in very small font, containing only those people with last names beginning with A and B. For a full list, see the main site: oism.org

Earl M. Aagaard, PhD, Charles W. Aami, Roger L. Aamodt, PhD, Wilbur A. Aanes, M. Robert Aaron, Ralph F. Abate, Hamed K. Abbas, PhD, Paul Abbett, Wyatt E. Abbitt III, Ursula K. Abbott, PhD, Bernaard J. Abbott, PhD, David M. Abbott Jr., Frank D. Abbott, Paul Abbott, Donald W. Abbott, Douglas R. Abbott, David J. Abbott, Eugene Abbott, Refaat A. Abdel-Malek, PhD, Riaz F. Abdulla, PhD, Albert S. Abdullah, DVM, Alan E. Abel, Jason Abel, Janis I. Abele, Joseph M. Abell, Robert E. Abell, Gene H. Abels, MD, Philip H. Abelson, PhD*, Wayne Aben, Jerrold Abernathy, Marshall W. Abernathy, Grady L. Ables, Earl Arthur Abrahamson, PhD, Robert C. Abrams, Carl M. Abrams, Alan V. Abrams, MD, Paul B. Abramson, PhD, Jose L. Abreu Jr., Joe L. Abriola Jr., Ahmed E. Aburahmah, PhD, Austin R. Ace, David A. Acerni, John W. Achee Sr., Billy R. Achmbaugh, Paul Achmidt, Daniel T. Achord, PhD, Ernest R. Achterberg, Ava V. Ackerman, DVM, William L. Ackerman, John R. Ackerman, Gene L. Ackerman, Richard E. Ackermann, Terry D. Ackman, Donald O. Acrey, Lee Actor, Humberto M. Acuna Jr., Robert K. Adair, PhD, William G. Adair Jr., Daniel Otis Adam, PhD, Brian D. Adam, PhD, Chris Adam, Anthony F. Adamo, George Baker Adams, PhD, Neil Adams, PhD, Leonard Caldwell Adams, PhD, Phillip Adams, PhD, Harold Elwood Adams, PhD, Gail D. Adams, PhD, Roy Melville Adams, PhD, Louis W. Adams, PhD, John Edgar Adams, PhD, Gerald J. Adams, PhD, Wilton T. Adams, PhD, William M. Adams, PhD, Brook W. Adams, Lewis R. Adams, William John Adams, Steven W. Adams, John Adams, William P. Adams, Dwight L. Adams, MD, Dell H. Adams, Ann S. Adams, Bryan C. Adams, Anthony W. Adams, MD, Richard L. Adams, William W. Adams, Eugene Adams, Walter F. Adams, Henry J. Adams, Richard Ernest Adams, Donald Adams, Opal Adams, Howard J. Adams, Richard W. Adams, MD, George F. Adams, Kent A. Adams, Daniel B. Adams Jr., N. Adams, Steve W. Adams, William D. Adams, Roy B. Adams, Jim D. Adams, William J. Adams Jr., Albert H. Adams, MD, James William Adams, Charles K. Adams, Wayne L. Adamson, Verne E. Adamson, Karlis JR Adamsons Jr., PhD, Rusty Adcock, MD, Robert E. Adcock, George Adcock, Lionel Paul Adda, PhD, Ben J. Addiego, William H. Addington, Tim Addington, Albert W. Addington, Paul Bradley Addis, PhD, Marshall B. Addison, PhD, Winford R. Addison, Joseph E. Adducci, MD, John K. Addy, PhD, Wayne F. Addy, C. William Ade, Albert H. Adelman, PhD, Barnet R. Adelman, Ronald R. Adkins, PhD, T. Adkins, L. A. Adkins, Gary N. Adkins, Wilder Adkins, Michael F. Adkins, Perry Lee Adkisson, PhD, Norman Adler, PhD, Jacques J.P. Adnet, Eric R. Adolphson, John H. Adrain, MD, Anthony J. Adrignolo, PhD, Harry Adrounie, PhD, V. Harry Adrounie, PhD, Richard A. Adsero, Steve E. Aeschbach, Stanley P. Aetrewicz, Stephen B. Affleck, PhD, Siegfried Aftergut, PhD, Jack G. Agan, Frederick A. Agdern, Larry Delmar Agenbroad, PhD, Sven Agerbek, David Agerton, PhD, George Aggen, PhD, Vincent Agnello, MD, Kenneth Agnes, Thomas I. Agnew, PhD, Mark R. Agnew, Robert F. Agnew, MD, M. C. Agress, John Aguilar, Jorge T. Aguinaldo, Aida M. Aguirre, Robert Aharonov, Richard Ahern, Phillip S. Ahlberg, Kevin Ahlborg, Mark Ahlert, Terry Ahlquist, Richard G. Ahlvin, Mumtaz Ahmed, PhD, Rafique Ahmed, PhD, Robert A. Ahokas, PhD, H. William Ahrenholz, Rolland W. Ahrens, PhD, Edward Ahrens, Robert M. Ahring, PhD, Joseph Aiello, MD, John J. Aiello, Robert P. Aillery, Brian R. Ainley, Oscar Richard Ainsworth, PhD, Alfred Ainsworth 3rd, Steven L. Ainsworth, Sol Aisenberg, PhD, John W. Ake, John Hvan Aken, Arthur W. Akers, Stuart R. Akers, David J. Akers, Gary L. Akerstrom, Wayne Henry Akeson, MD, Munawwar M. Akhtar, Frank Jerrel Akin, PhD, Thane Akins, Frederick I. Akiya, John S. Akiyama, M. H. Akram, PhD, Philip R. Akre, MD, Lloyd Alaback, G. James Alaback, John A. Alai, Robert J. Alaimo, PhD, Rogelio N. Alama, Greg Alan, Vincent M. Albanese, Henry Albaugh, Grant Alberich, Daniel C. Albers, Timothy A. Albers, Kenneth O. Albers, Arthur Edward Albert, PhD, Eric K. Albert, PhD, Edward Albert, Tom J. Albert, William L. Albert, James T. Albert, James L. Alberta, Leland C. Albertson, Roy A. Albertson, Frank Addison Albini, PhD, Rudolph C. Albrecht, Allan J. Albrecht, Robert M. Albrecht, Jay Donald Albright, PhD, James C. Albright, PhD, Robert Lee Albright, PhD, Fred Ronald Albright, PhD, William D. Albright, Marcus Albro, Allwyn Albuquerque, Evelyn A. Alcantara, PhD, Ernest Charles Alcaraz, PhD, Garrett D. Alcorn, John C. Alden, PhD, Frank J. Alder, Ronald Godshall Alderfer, PhD, Thomas Alderson, PhD, Ben Alderton, Franklin Dalton Aldrich, PhD, Samuel Roy Aldrich, PhD, Harl P. Aldrich, PhD, Richard John Aldrich, PhD, Reuben J. Aldrich, Robert Aldridge, Gabriel C. Aldulescu, MD, Perry Baldwin Alers, PhD, Alex F. Alessandrini, Steven J. Alessandro, Andrew J. Alessi, Stephen R. Alewine, Joseph J. Alex, Joe Alex, M. Dale Alexander, PhD, Michael L. Alexander, Ira H. Alexander, Dave Alexander, George C. Alexander, DVM, John C. Alexander, Harold R. Alexander, Danrick W. Alexander, Robert Alexander, Dennis J. Alexander, James F. Alexander Jr., Moorad Alexanian, PhD, Igor Alexeff, PhD, Charles D. Alexson, Rodolfo Q. Alfonso, Mary E. Alford, Jennifer M. Alford, Rex Alford, Robert L. Alford, Luis A. Algarra, Roger Casanova Alig, PhD, Casanova Alig, PhD, Mark J. Alkire, MD, R. Allahyari, PhD, Louis John Allamandola, PhD, C. Allard, Roger L. Allard, Joel W. Alldredge, Fred A. Allehoff, John F. Alleman, Eric R. Allen, PhD, Paul W. Allen, PhD, Roger B. Allen, PhD, Clayton H. Allen, PhD, Charles M. Allen, PhD, Emma Allen, PhD, Ben C. Allen, PhD, David Allen, PhD, James L. Allen, PhD, Thomas Hunter Allen, PhD, Robert K. Allen, MD, Levi D. Allen, Robert C. Allen, Pampselo Allen, Kimbol R. Allen, Joshua C. Allen, Madelyn H. Allen, DVM, Christopher G. Allen, Charles C. Allen, Robert G. Allen, DVM, Kenneth L. Allen, F. J. Allen, Stewart J. Allen, John L. Allen, Randall Allen, Marvin E. Allen, Merrill P. Allen, David M. Allen, Kristin L. Allen, William Allen Jr., Jason D. Allen, William W. Allen, Robert T. Van Aller, PhD, George L. Allerton, Carl J. Allesandro, Robert Q. Alleva, Jonathan Alley, MD, Ernest R. Alley, George L. Allgoever, Robert H. Allgood, Robert W. Allgood, Richard Alan Alliegro, Mike E. Alligood, Ronald C. Allison, MD, Gary L. Allison, Kevin R. Allison, Craig Allison, Randall W. Allison, Terry G. Allison, Kevin E. Allisonn, Charles E. Allman, George J. Allman, Philip D. Allmendinger, MD, John J. Allport, PhD, Victor Dean Allred, PhD, Albert L. Allred, PhD, Bruce W. Allred, Ivan D. Allred, Gary W. Allshouse, Arthur W. Allsop, Terry Alltson, Gary L. Allurg, MD, R. A. Allwein, Ronaldo A. Almero, Frank Murray Almeter, PhD, Kent A. Alms, Richard E. Almy, Ramon J. Alonso, PhD, Jorge L. Alonso, James A. Aloye, Ali Yulmaz Alper, Reevis Stancil Alphin, PhD, Zeki Al-Saigh, PhD, Allen A. Alsing, A. Frank Alsobrook, Robert C. Alson, Albert W. Alsop, PhD, John Henry Alsop, PhD, Randy J. Alstadt, Sally S. Alston, John Pruyn Van Alstyne, Charles Alt, Greg A. Altberg, Vincent O. Altemose, Nicholas A. Alten, Frederick C. Althaus, George A. Alther, Howard W. Althouse, Timothy L. Altier, Ashton Altieri, Martin E. Altis, David Altman, PhD, Melvyn R. Altman, PhD, Ronny G. Altman, Peter Christian Altner, MD, Herbert N. Altneu, Sidney J. Altschuler, Edward E. Altshuler, PhD, Burton Myron Altura, PhD, Patrick Aluotto, PhD, Frank M. Alustiza, Raul C. Alva, Anthony B. Alvarado, Raymond Angelo Alvarez Jr., PhD, Antonio R. Alvarez, Virgilio E. Alvarez, Dayton L. Alverson, PhD, Bryron Alvey, R. Byron Alvey, Stephen Edward Always, PhD, Vern J. Always, Zaynab Al-Yassin, PhD, James I. Alyea, Bradley A. Aman, Farouk Amanatullah, David Saint Amand, Larry C. Amans, James L. Amarel, Charles David Amata, PhD, Carmelo J. Amato, Paul Gerard Amazeen, PhD, Ronald F. Amberger, PhD, Leonard Amborski, PhD, Joseph R. Ambruster, Donald Ford Amend, PhD, Marvin Earl Ament, Richard Amerling, MD, Robert C. Amero, Lynford Lenhart Ames, PhD, Edward J. Ames III, Martin R. Ames, Donald R. Amett, Michael R. Amick, Wayne P. Amico, Dean P. Amidon, Pushpavati S. Amin, Duane R. Amlee, Kenneth S. Ammons, Moris Amon, PhD, Richard D. Amori, Dewey Harold Amos, PhD, Bonnie B. Amos, PhD, A. Amr, PhD, Fred Amsler, MD, Robert L. Amster, DVM, Thomas A. Amundsen, Adolph L. Amundson, James P. Amy, Barry M. Amyx, MD, Raymond J. Anater, Sal A. Anazalone, Kenneth L. Ancell, Melvin M. Anchell, MD, Ernest J. Andberg, Kenneth J. Anderer, G. Anderle, PhD, John P. Anders, MD, Wilford Hoyt Andersen, PhD, Torben B. Andersen, PhD, Donald A. Andersen, PhD, Terrell Neils Andersen, PhD, Lawrence D. Andersen, Donald R. Andersen Jr., Gene P. Andersen, George H. Andersen, Doug E. Andersen, D. Andersen, David W. Anderso, Robert W. Andersohn, Donald Anderson, PhD, John C. Anderson, PhD, Bernard Jeffrey Anderson, PhD, Arthur G. Anderson, PhD, Joy R. Anderson, PhD, Ross S. Anderson, PhD, Orson Lamar Anderson, PhD, David Anderson, PhD, Thomas F. Anderson, PhD, Julia W. Anderson, PhD, Amos Robert Anderson, PhD, Ingrid Anderson, PhD, Richard Alan Anderson, PhD, Corby G. Anderson, PhD, ****** Anderson, PhD, Elmer A. Anderson, PhD, David Robert Anderson, PhD, Larry Anderson, PhD, Donald Heruin Anderson, PhD, David O. Anderson, PhD, David Anderson, Alan J. Anderson, Anita Teter Anderson, Chris Anderson, Conrad E. Anderson, MD, Jane E. Anderson, Roscoe B. Anderson, MD, Robert E. Anderson, Warren Ronald Anderson, Thomas P. Anderson, James Anderson, Walton O. Anderson, Glenn L. Anderson, Tom Anderson, James P. Anderson, Janis W. Anderson, David B. Anderson, Barry D. Anderson, Bruce Martin Anderson Jr., Mike E. Anderson, David A. Anderson, Joel Anderson, Thornton Anderson, William L. Anderson, Harrison Clarke Anderson, MD, Arthur E. Anderson, Roy E. Anderson, James R. Anderson, Leif H. Anderson, Professor Anderson, Craig A. Anderson, Jon C. Anderson, MD, Mitchell Anderson, R. L. Anderson, Ken Anderson, Nathan Anderson, Mary Anderson, Robert J. Anderson, MD, Lynn C. Anderson, DVM, H. C. Anderson, Randa;; H. Anderson, Christopher Anderson, James K. Anderson, Loran K. Anderson, Kenneth E. Anderson, Arvid Anderson, J. Hilbert Anderson, Douglas J. Anderson, MD, Albert S. Anderson, MD, Mark Anderson, Fred G. Anderson, MD, Richard C. Anderson, P. Jennings Anderson, Keith R. Anderson, Greg J. Anderson, Reece B. Anderson, C. M. Anderson Jr., Wilbert C. Anderson, John O. Anderson, Russell Anderson, Gerald L. Anderson, Theodore D. Anderson, Tom P. Anderson, Mark A. Anderson, Roger O. Anderson, Percy G. Anderson Jr., Lowell Ray Anderson, Karen Andersonnoeck, Charles S. Andes, Mark J. Andorka, John Robert Andrade, PhD, Manuel Andrade, John Andrako, PhD, Ivan J. Andrasik, Peter R. Andreana, PhD, Gilbert M. Andreen, Eva Andrei, PhD, George Andreiev, Richard M. Andres, PhD, Duane F. Andress, Douglas Andress, Steven M. Andreucci, James F. Andrew, PhD, James M. Andrew, Russell S. Andrews, PhD, John Stevens Andrews, PhD, Scott Andrews, PhD, Russell A. Andrews, Mel Andrews, Frederick T. Andrews, Felixe A. Andrews, Raynal W. Andrews, Harry N. Andrews, Marion L. Andrews, Timothy Andreychek, Lois Andros, M. B. Andrus, PhD, Walter S. Andrus, Edward A. Andrus, Robert E. Angel, Ernest F. Angelicola, Vincent Angelo, PhD, Francis M. Angeloni, PhD, T. Angelosaute, Steven T. Angely, Claude B. Anger, Robert H. Angevine, Ernest Angino, PhD, Walter C. Anglemeyer, Howard P. Angstadt, PhD, Micheal J. Anhorn, Kevin P. Ankenbrand, William D. Ankney, Stuart H. Anness, Stig A. Annestrand, B. M. Anose, PhD, Mohammed R. Ansari, Gregory W. Antal, Bradley C. Antanaitis, PhD, Bradley C. Anthanaitis, PhD, John Allen Anthes, PhD, Elizabeth Y. Anthony, PhD, Lee Saunders Anthony, PhD, Robert D. Anthony, Jack R. Anthony, Charles H. Antinori, PhD, Achilles P. Anton, MD, Herbert D. Anton, Nick J. Antonas, Dan Antonescu-Wolf, MD, Rolando A. Antonio, Wilfred L> Antonson, Stephen P. Antony, Walter Robert Van Antwerp, Mary J. Anzia, PhD, Clarence R. Apel, MD, Henry W. Apfelbach, MD, P. J. Apice, Carl Apicella, Bruce W. Apland, David R. Appel, Kenneth P. Apperson, Norman Apperson, W. H. Appich Jr., Lynn Apple, Robert Apple, Alan Appleby, PhD, Robert H. Appleby, James K. Applegate, PhD, Donald Applegate, DVM, Lowell N. Applegate, John K. Applegath, Herbert S. Appleman, Douglas E. Applequist, PhD, Morris Herman Aprison, PhD, Charles Apter, PhD, Richard Apuzzo II, J. B. Aquilla, MD, Arturo Q. Arabe, PhD, Ara Arabyan, PhD, Steven B. Aragon, Orlando A. Arana, Eric C. Araneta, Jonathan Arata, PhD, Howard Arbaugh, Anatoly L. Arber, PhD, Harry D. Arber, R. Kent Arblaster, Jaime Arbona-Fazzi, PhD, Earl F. Arbuckle 3rd, John Arcadi, James R. Arce, Antonio E. Arce, Ed Arce, Frank G. Arcella, PhD, Byron J. Arceneaux, Webster J. Arceneaux Jr., Leon M. Arceneaux, John Arch, William W. Archer, Donald Archer, Bill Archer, Diane Archer, Patrick J. Archey, Robert L. Archibald, Philip Archibald, John Archie, Angela N. Archon, Stephen A. Arcutt, William Bryant Ard, PhD, William Ard, Richard J. Ardine Arthur, Joe R. Arechavaleta, Christopher Arend, Robert W. Arends, Elton E. Arensman, Vittorio K. Argento, PhD, Harold V. Argo, PhD, Guvenc Argon, John W. Argue, Lawrence Ariano, MD, William J. Arion, PhD, Zaven S. Ariyan, PhD, Alfred Arkell, PhD, Giacomo Armand DI, PhD, Gertrude D. Armbruster, PhD, Thomas G. Armbuster, MD, Richard W. Armentrout, PhD, Lew Armer, J. S. Armijo, PhD, Ralph Elmer Armington, PhD, Bobby M. Armistead, William E. Armour, Robert L. Arms, Baxter H. Armstrong, PhD, Marvin D. Armstrong, PhD, Joseph Armstrong, PhD, Robert Lee Armstrong, PhD, Robert L. Armstrong, PhD, Desiree A. Armstrong, PhD, Lou Armstrong, Clifford B. Armstrong Jr., Mark Armstrong, James R. Armstrong, DVM, James E. Armstrong, Lowell Todd Armstrong, Glenn M. Armstrong, Melvin B. Armstrong, Robert Emile Arnal, PhD, Dana Arndt, Harold H. Arndt, Ross Harold Arnett, PhD, William S. Arnett, Jerome C. Arnett Jr., Charles Arney, T. Philip Arnhol, PhD, Philip John Arnholt, PhD, R. Arnold, PhD, Charles Arnold, PhD, William Archibald Arnold, PhD, Jack N. Arnold, Robert Arnold Jr., DVM, Marcia L. Arnold, Timothy D. Arnold, Randall W. Arnold, C. Arnold, Charles W. Arnold, Gregory B. Arnold, Edwin L. Arnold, Herbert K. Arnold, David Arnold, Lance L. Arnold, Lester C. Arnwine, James T. Arocho, MD, Sidney O. Arola, Seymour Aronson, PhD, Casper J. Aronson, George V. Aros Chilingarian, PhD, Joseph Bartholomew Arots, PhD, Adrian Arp, PhD, Charles Hammond Arrington, PhD, Dale E. Arrington, PhD, Donald R. Arrington, Clement R. Arrison, Rhea T. Van Arsdall, John V. Artale, James S. Arthur, PhD, Charles G. Artinian, MD, Max Artusy, PhD, Robert Artz, Jaime N. Aruguete, MD, Delano Z. Arvin, PhD, Joseph J. Arx, George J. Asanovich, Charles H. Asbill, Bob J. Ascherl, Willard Van Asdall, PhD, Alvin G. Ash, Michael W. Ashberry, Edward V. Ashburn, Joe E. Ashby, PhD, Randolph Ashby, PhD, Kenny Ashby, Charles R. Ashford, Holt Ashley, PhD, Doyle Allen Ashley, PhD, Warren Cotton Ashley, PhD, A. Ashley, PhD, William M. Ashley, Edward E. Ashley, Maynard B. Ashley, Wayne A. Ashley, Alvin Ashman, Jerome P. Ashman, Philip T. Ashton, Romney A. Ashton, MD, Walter R. Ashwil, Walter R. Ashwill, Jim F. Ashworth, Bob Ashworth, Monroe Ashworth, Robert S. Ashworth, Victor Asirvatham, PhD, Orv B. Askeland, Ann Askew, B. Askildsen, Charles W. Askins, Philip R. Askman, Tom Asmas, PhD, Robert C. Asmus, Erik Aspelin, Winifred Alice Asprey, PhD, Don O. Asquith, PhD, Mike Assad, Andrew P. Assenmacher, Orazio J. Astarita, Jacob F. Asti, Everett L. Astleford, Eugene Roy Astley, R. Lee Aston Esq, PhD, Raymond J. Astor Sr., Otilia J. Asuncion, MD, Charles E. Atchison, James Atchison, Curtis L. Atchley, Robert Aten, PhD, Greg J. Aten, James Athanasion, William J. Atherton, PhD, Michael J. Atherton, PhD, Robert D. Athey Jr., PhD, David C. Atkins, M. Atkins, Larry P. Atkins, Arthur C. Atkins, Larry N. Atkinson, Lynn Atkinson, Matt Atkinson, John P. Atkinson, John R. Atkinson, J. R. Atkinson, Stanley L. Atnipp, Richard Attig, Leonardo D. Attorre, William J. Attwooll, Jerry C. Atwell, Mark Atwood, PhD, Robert C. Atwood, Luben Atzeff, MD, Jerry Y. Au, Lester C. Auble, Darrel D. Auch, James C. Auckland, Walter Auclair, PhD, Daniel J. Aucutt, Bryan Audiffred, William H. Audley, Victor Hugo Auerbach, PhD, Louis A. Auerbach, Keith H. Aufderheide, PhD, William R. Aufricht, Dale A. Augenstein, PhD, Owen H. Auger, Dustin M. Aughenbaugh, Joe Augspurger, PhD, Mike August, James K. August, Brian Augustine, PhD, W. David Augustine, Frederick N. Aukeman, J. Todd Aukerman, C. Mark. Aulick, PhD, Luther Aull, PhD, Neil N. Ault, PhD, Bruce S. Ault, PhD, Kathi A. Aultman, MD, John B. Aultmann Jr., Thomas E. Aumock, Bob J. Aumueller, Henry Spiese Aurand, Richard A. Aurand, Richard Aurisano, PhD, Joeseph D. Aurizio, Brian E. Ausburn, Kenny Ausmus, Kurt L. Austad, Roger J. Austin, PhD, Alfred Ells Austin, PhD, Carl Fulton Austin, PhD, D. Austin, PhD, Del Austin, D. Austin, Michael N. Austin, Paul E. Austin, Robert L. Austin, Harold T. Austin, Ward H. Austin, Lloyd H. Austin, Carlton L. Austin, Edward T. Auth, Donald W. Autio, Amalia R. Auvigne, MD, Andrew B. Avalon, Canan D. Avela, William E. Avera, Mark Averett, Jon R. Averhoff, Frank Averill, PhD, Rosario D. Averion, Philip J. Avery, Donald Avery, Nathan M. Avery, Alex Avery, Kenneth Avicola, Luis A. Avila, Teresita D. Avila, MD, Arthur J. Avila, Joseph Avruch, Theodore C. Awartkruis, PhD, Steven G. Axen, M. Friedman Axler, PhD, William P. Aycock, Walton T. Ayer, Robert C. Ayers Jr., PhD, Bruce D. Ayres, PhD, T. G. Ayres, Dany Ayseur, Alison M. Azar, Max Azevedo, Azizollah Azhdam--Peter R. B, MD, Bryan Baab, Dirk Den Baars, PhD, William J. Babalis, MD, Neil C. Babb, Jerry L. Baber, Gerald V. Babigian, John M. Babli, Christopher J. Bablin, Bill E. Babyak, Ray M. Bacchi, Ronald R. Bach, PhD, Ricardo O. Bach, PhD, Frederick Addison Bacher, Gordon R. Bachlund, Bonnie Jean Wilson Bachman, PhD, Randall L. Bachman, Charles L. Bachman, Bruce E. Bachman, Henry Lee Bachman, Kenneth A. Bachmann, PhD, Kent P. Bachmann, Joseph P. Bacho, Robert J. Bachta, Patrick J. Back, William E. Backes, Alan G. Backman, MD, Charles R. Bacon, PhD, William Dudson Bacon, PhD, Frederic S. Bacon Jr., Mary Bacon, Lloyal O. Bacon, Frank Rider Bacon, Drury L. Bacon, J. Robert Bacon, Robert J. Baczuk, Tanwir A. Badar, Maurice F. Baddour, Jay K. Badenhoop, PhD, Cyril G. Bader, Christian C. Badger, Richard G. Badger, James F. Badgett, T. Dale Badgwell, Gerald E. Baehler, Adrian Donald Baer, PhD, Carl Baer, PhD, Roger L. Baer, Tim Baer, Ralph H. Baer, C. David Baer, Edward A. Baetke, Keith J. Bagarus, Lee R. Bagby, William F. Bagby, Walter J. Bagdon, PhD, A. D. Baggerley, DVM, A. D. Baggerly, DVM, Lester Marchant Baggett, PhD, Dennis D. Baggett, Jay K. Baggs, Jay M. Bagley, PhD, Steve G. Bagley, Joseph Anthony Baglio, PhD, Vincent P. Baglioni, Georgw C. Bagnall, J. Brent Bagshaw, Lcdr Paul Baham, T. Bahill, PhD, A. Terry Bahill, PhD, Andrew T. Bahill, PhD, D. Bahm, Donald R. Bahnfleth, Andre JS Baidins, PhD, Rodger W. Baier, PhD, Henry P. Baier, R. A. Baile, Robert Leroy Bailey, PhD, Matthew P. Bailey, PhD, David George Bailey, PhD, Carl Williams Bailey, PhD, Alan C. Bailey, David A. Bailey, Edmund J. Bailey, Liam P. Bailey, Benton B. Bailey, Ronald M. Bailey, R. V. Bailey, Dana Kavanaugh Bailey, Ed Bailey, James Bailey, Hugh Bailey, John J. Bailey Jr., Lloyd W. Bailey, Jim Bailey, James H. Bailey Jr., Betty L. Bailey, C. Bailey, Dane E. Bailey, R. E. Bailey, Carlos T. Bailey, Ed Bailey, Donald T. Bailey, John A. Bailleu, Robert M. Bailliet, Paul A. Bailly, PhD, Paul A. Bailly, PhD, Paul A. Bailly, PhD, James A. Bain, PhD, Lee J. Bain, PhD, Travis Bainbridge, David Bainer, Edward J. Bair, PhD, Richard C. Bair, Jack R. Baird, PhD, Craig Riska Baird, PhD, Ramon Condie Baird, PhD, Quincey Lamar Baird, PhD, George C. Baird, Thomas H. Baird, James l. Baird, Richard J. Baird, Donald W. Baisch, Dana L. Baites, Andrejs Bajdins, PhD, John L. Bakane, Randall L. Bakel, J. Baker, PhD, Norman F. Baker, PhD, Don Robert Baker, PhD, Mary Ann Baker, PhD, Earl W. Baker, PhD, Harold Nordean Baker, PhD, Louis Baker, PhD, John P. Baker, PhD, Robert D. Baker, PhD, Charles R. Baker, PhD, D. K. Baker, PhD, William Oliver Baker, PhD, Lara H. Baker, PhD, Daniel M. Baker, PhD, A. J. Baker, PhD, Allen J. Baker, PhD, Lee Edward Baker, PhD, Vernon H. Baker, PhD, Robert R. Baker R. Baker, PhD, Robert W. Baker, PhD, Barton Scofield Baker, PhD, Tina L. Baker, Robert Baker, Brooks H. Baker III, Harry R. Baker, Roland E. Baker, W. J. Baker, Theodore Paul Baker, Joseph H. Baker, MD, Randal Baker, Andrew D. Baker, Terry Baker, R. Baker, Leroy E. Baker, Robert J. Baker, Roger P. Baker, Robert L. Baker, Benny H. Baker, Gary E. Baker, Newton C. Baker, Herbert H. Baker, Gilbert Baker, Howard T. Baker, Jeffrey M. Baker, DVM, Benjamin H. Bakerjian, Gilbert B. Bakke, James R. Bakken, Daniel Bakker, George Bakopoulos, Lee A. Balaklaw, MD, Egon Balas, PhD, Jonathan A. Balasa, Francis J. Balash, Brent P. Balcer, Marion John Balcerzak, PhD, Alfred Hudson Balch, PhD, Orville Balcom, W. Loyd Balderson, PhD, W. Lloyd Balderston, PhD, Nicholas N. Baldo Jr., Andrew Ateleo Baldoni, PhD, Leland B. Baldrick, Edgar E. Baldridge, Ransom Leland Baldwin, PhD, Barrett S. Baldwin, PhD, A. Richard Baldwin, PhD, Evart Baldwin, PhD, David P. Baldwin, William M. Baldwin, Nathan S. Baldwin, Carr W. Baldwin, Connie L. Baldwin, Steven J. Baldwin, Larry Bale, Cliff Bale, George Balella, MD, Ferdi M. Baler, John Wayland Bales, PhD, Dale I. Bales, PhD, R. M. Bales, Amir Balfas, Paul F. Balint, P. Balis, Craig Balistrire, Sallie Baliunas, PhD, Brund Balke, MD, George Ball, ****** Ball, DVM, James A. Ball, Fredrick B. Ball, Eric S. Ball, J. Austin Ball, MD, Frederic M. Ball, Jerry C. Ball, Mark A. Ball, D. Ballal, PhD, Joseph M. Ballantyne, PhD, William Ballard, PhD, Glenn A. Ballard, Ronald C. Ballard, DVM, David W. Ballard, Ollie H. Ballard IV, Harold N. Ballard, Joseph S. Ballassai, Ronald L. Ballast, Arthur Ballato, PhD, B. Balle, MD, Greg Ballengee, Antonio P. Ballestero Jr., Robert Balling, PhD, Walter E. Ballinger, PhD, William L. Ballis, Kent F. Balls, MD, Richard L. Balogh Jr., Martin Balow, Robert C. Balsam Jr., Ashok M. Balsaver, MD, Derek M. Balskin, James Y. Baltar, Evan S. Baltazzi, PhD, Arden Albert Baltensperger, PhD, John S. Baltutis, Cris C. Banaban, Jerome E. Banasik Sr., John J. Banchetti, Lewis Clinton Bancroft, George P. Bancroft, Dan W. Bancroft, Rudolph Neal Band, PhD, Herman William Bandel, PhD, Cathy Bandyk, PhD, Tom Bane, Debendranath Banerjee, PhD, Richard M. Banister, Kernen Banker, Robert D. Bankhead, Attila D. Banki, Seymour George Bankoff, PhD, Richard B. Banks, William R. Banman, Elmer Alexander Bannan, Roger E. Banner, PhD, Ted B. Banner, Lorry T. Bannes, Lloyd Harold Banning, William Warren Bannister, PhD, Peter R. Bannister, William M. Bannister, DVM, David L. Banta, Ronald E. Banuk, Donald E. Banzhaf, MD, James Noel Baptist, PhD, Neil J. Barabas, John Paul Barach, PhD, James A. Baran, PhD, Ronald Barany, PhD, Zot Barazzotto, Kurt L. Barbee, Bill Barbee, Ted Barben, Theodore R. Barben, Art Barber, George Arthur Barber, Donald E. Barber, Anslem H. Barber Jr., Paul Barber, George R. Barber Jr., Ever Barbero, PhD, Gerald L. Barbieri, Paul D. Barbieri, Todd Barbosa, MD, Octavian M. Barbu, Richard A. Barca, Zinovy I. Barch, PhD, James W. Barcikowski, Norman E. Barclay, Brian S. Barcus, Jeffrey D. Barczak, Charleton C. Bard, PhD, Randolph P. Bardini, Robert A. Bardo, Chad J. Bardone, Andrew M. Bardos, Charles Edward Bardsley, PhD, Steven Bardwell, PhD, Stanley O. Barefoot, Morrie Jay Barembaum, Ernest Barenberg, PhD, Grigory Isaakovich Barenblatt, PhD, Charles Barenfanger, Fioravante A. Bares, PhD, Mark J. Bareta, Robert F. Barfield, PhD, Thomas Barfknecht, PhD, Eric N. Barger, Lawrence R. Baria, Donald O. Barici, Philip A. Barilla, Robert Barish, PhD, Michael J. Barjaktarovich, O'Gene W. Barkemeyer, Roy Jean Barker, PhD, Horace A. Barker, PhD, LeRoy N. Barker, PhD, Allen Vaughan Barker, PhD, Franklin Brett Barker, PhD, Francis J. Barker, Walter E. Barker Jr., Brent O. Barker, Theodore S. Barker, Eli F. Barker, John E. Barkley, PhD, Ross C. Barkley, Neal Barkley, Barry L. Barkley, Bill Barks, William B. Barksdale, PhD, Alan A. Barksdale, Richard K. Barksdale, R. Michael Barland, MD, Anthony Barlow, PhD, Mary J. Barlow, MD, Steven J. Barlow, Mark Owens Barlow, Alex Barlowen, Douglas D. Barman, Theodore K. Barna, PhD, Earl R. Barnard, David A. Barnard, Larry K. Barnard, Daniel D. Barnard, Tom Barnard, Campbell C. Barnds, Allen L. Barnes, PhD, M. D. Barnes, PhD, Robert F. Barnes, PhD, Richard Barnes, Benny B. Barnes, Durton B. Barnes, Russell H. Barnes, Paul R. Barnes, Albert R. Barnes, Burton B. Barnes, Stephen W. Barnes, Ellis O. Barnes, Ralph M. Barnes, Josh T. Barnes, Rolon Barnes, Lindsey B. Barnes, MD, Larry E. Barnes, DVM, Yeheskel Bar-Ness, PhD, L. Bruce Barnett, PhD, Paul Edward Barnett, PhD, R. C. Barnett, Ralph M. Barnett, Brian F. Barnett, Mike Barnett, William J. Barnett, John Barney, Debra Barngrover, PhD, A. V. Barnhill Jr., Scott A. Barnhill, Robert M. Barnoff, PhD, James Robert Barnum, PhD, Charles J. Baroch, PhD, Charles John Baroczy, Seymour Baron, PhD, Linard T. Baron, Jeremiah A. Barondess, MD, Louis Joseph Barone, Walter Barquist, MD, Samuel A. Barr, Lawrence Dale Barr, Kenneth J. Barr, Douglas W. Barr, Michael J. Barr, Carroll Marlin Barrack, PhD, Stephen S. Barranco, James R. Barrante, PhD, Kenneth H. Barratt, Clem A. Barrere, PhD, Cary N. Barrett, PhD, Kenneth A. Barrett, Wallace H. Barrett, George H. Barrett, Damian G. Barrett, Timothy M. Barrett, MD, Christopher M. Barrett, James E. Barrick, PhD, James P. Barrie, George M. Barrington, PhD, Leland L. Barrington, Bruce M. Barron, Robert H. Barron, MD, Lance R. Barron, Donald J. Barron, Cory W. Barron, Oscar N. Barron, Allen C. Barron, Phillip A. Barros, Thomas D. Barrow, PhD, Wylie W. Barrow Jr., Lawrence J. Barrows, PhD, Paul W. Barrows, PhD, Gary D. Barry, Robert J. Barry, MD, Paul A. Barry, Charles L. Barry, DVM, Benjamin Austin Barry, Samuel M. Barsky, Kenneth A. Bartal, Bonnie L. Bartee, John Bartel, PhD, Timothy W. Bartel, William G. Bartel, Bruce C. Bartels, Douglas G. Bartels, J. H. Barten, Eugene Barth, Walter G. Barth, Jon Barth, Herbert G. Barth, Maria V. Bartha, Jack Bartholmai, MD, Robert F. Bartholomew, MD, Peter J. Barthuly, Don A. Bartick, Benjamin M. Bartilson, Janeth Marie Bartlett, PhD, Bob W. Bartlett, PhD, John Wesley Bartlett, PhD, Howard F. Bartlett, Thomas A. Bartlett, B. Bartley, PhD, Gary Bartley, Mark A. Bartlow, Carol J. Bartnick, PhD, Charles J. Barto Jr., William E. Barton, PhD, Paul Barton, PhD, Richard C. Barton, W. Clyde Barton Jr., Hugh B. Barton, James W. Bartos, Jerry G. Bartos, Robert J. Bartosh Jr., William P. Bartow, David L. Bartsch, Z. E. Bartusch, Patrica W. Bartusik, Don Bartz, Blaine W. Bartz, Ronald Bartzatt, PhD, Edward J. Barvick, Edward J. Barvick, F. R. Barys, David T. Basden, Cecil O. Basenberg, William L. Basham, PhD, Samuel J. Basham Jr., Niles Bashaw, Roland E. Bashore, Mark D. Basile, John E. Basinski, PhD, Richard Basinski, George M. Baskin, Alex Baskous, Steven Craig Bass, PhD, Jonathan Langer Bass, PhD, Steven C. Bass, PhD, John W. Bass, MD, H. Smith Bass, James A. Bass, Haskell H. Bass, MD, Mark J. Bassett, PhD, Alton H. Bassett, PhD, Lonnie G. Bassett, Norris J. Bassett, Acton Bassett, Thomas G. Bassett, Michael A. Bassford, Don Bassler, Rose Ann Bast, PhD, Seyed A. Bastani, PhD, Justin P. Bastian, T. David Bastian, Frank A. Bastidas, Nayan K. Basu, Robert Batay, David George Batchelder, Samuel Burbridge Batdorf, PhD, Robert L. Batdorf, PhD, Richard L. Bate, Steven Bateman, James Bateman, Charles Carpenter Bates, PhD, Lynn Shannon Bates, PhD, Carl H. Bates, PhD, Franklin E. Bates, Earl M. Bates, Bruce E. Bates, Andy H. Batey, PhD, Robert William Batey, Thomas L. Batke, Terry E. Batlalino, Alan P. Batson, PhD, Kevin P. Batt, Stuart L. Battarbee, Albert Batten, PhD, George L. Batten, PhD, Robert Dean Battershell, PhD, Barbara Batterson, Dane G. Battiest, Sam P. Battista, PhD, Joe Battista, Max G. Battle Sr., Jack L. Battle, Kirk Battleson, PhD, Joseph H. Battocletti, PhD, Joseph Clair Batty, PhD, Richard Baubles, E. Baudoin, Edward C. Bauer, PhD, Paul Bauer, PhD, Frederick Bauer, PhD, Armand Bauer, PhD, Frances Brand Bauer, PhD, Carl August Bauer, PhD, Larry G. Bauer, PhD, Martin A. Bauer, Bertrand J. Bauer, Don J. Bauer, Ceo E. Bauer, Thomas Bauer, Milton Bauer, F. Scott Bauer, Wayne Bauer, Kerry E. Bauer, Michael H. Bauer Jr., Mark S. Bauer, Bradley M. Bauer, Barry A. Bauermeister, T. Mack Baugh, Peyton B. Baughan, Joseph E. Baughman, PhD, George L. Baughman, Frederick C. Bauhof, Charles William Bauknight Jr., PhD, Douglas B. Bauling, Kurt Baum, PhD, Joseph H. Baum, PhD, Linda L. Baum, PhD, Eric Baum, PhD, Wolfgang Baum, PhD, Lester F. Baum, Robert A. Baum, John W. Bauman, PhD, Bernard D. Bauman, PhD, Rick Bauman, Robert Bauman, Wolfgang J. Baumann, PhD, Hans D. Baumann, PhD, Norman Paul Baumann, PhD, Roger A. Baumann, Steve Baumann, Frank J. Baumann, Arthur Nicholas Baumann, Lisa L. Baumbach, PhD, Theo C. Baumeister, Max Baumeister, Jim Baumer, PhD, Ralph B. Baumer, Kenneth L. Baumert, PhD, Thomas P. Baumgarth, Eric Paul Baumgartner, A. W. Baumgartner, AZ Baumgartner, W. Z. Baumgartner, David Paul Baumhefner, John E. Baures, Bernard V Illars Baus, PhD, Hans P. Bausch, Peter Bausch, Monte P. Bawden, PhD, Ronald G. Baxley, Henry H. Baxter, Richard W. Bayer, Theodore H. Bayer, Robert L. Bayless Jr., John G. Bayless, Steve Bayless, Fred H. Bayley, Bruce L. Bayley, William H. Bayliff, Robert Baylis, Stephen L. Baylock, Richard C. Baylor, MD, George W. Bayne, Warren J. Bayne, Melvin A. Bayne, James T. Bayot, PhD, Frank L. Bazzanella, Wallace E. Beaber, Buddy A. Beach, Clifton W. Beach, Charles Beach, Dwight Beach Jr., Timothy H. Beacham, Bruce A. Beachnau, DVM, Bobby Joe Beakley, Jack W. Beal, PhD, Mark K. Beal, Mike B. Bealey, Gary Beall, PhD, Herbert Beall, PhD, Paula Thornton Beall, PhD, James M. Beall, Edward W. Beall, Samuel E. Beall Jr., Terry W. Beall, Bobby D. Beall, MD, James F. Beall, Joseph M. Beals, MD, Robert M. Bean, PhD, Brian Bean, Dale E. Bean, Elroy W. Beans, PhD, Shelby R. Bear, Arthur L. Bear, James B. Beard, PhD, Thomas L. Beard, James H. Beardall, Carl L. Beardeh, Scott L. Beardemphil, Henry Joe Bearden, PhD, H. Joe Bearden, PhD, William Boone Beardmore, PhD, Rhett Bearmont, Charles I. Bearse III, Reginald H. Bearsley, Donald Beasley, PhD, J. Donald Beasley, PhD, Wayne D. Beasley, DVM, Wayne Machon Beasley, Daniel E. Beasley, George A. Beasley, E. Beaton, William Beaton, James Monroe Beattie, PhD, Peggy Beatty, Ken L. Beatty, David C. Beaty, David Beaucage, PhD, Edward J. Beauchaine Jr., Weldon H. Beauchamp, PhD, Edward G. Beauchamp, Timothy L. Beauchemin, Robert A. Beaudet, PhD, Haley Beaudry, James H.M. Beaudry, Edward A. Beaumont, Frank V. Beaumont, Wiley F. Beaux, Christine Beavcage, PhD, Dennis E. Beaver, Harold R. Beaver, Ellington McHenry Beavers, PhD, Albert I. Beazer, William Pearson Bebbington, PhD, Paul Becher, PhD, Richard J. Becherer, PhD, Mhamdy H. Bechir, PhD, Tom B. Bechtel, PhD, Horst Huttenhain Bechtel, Bennett E. Bechtol, Benny E. Bechtol, Robert F. Bechtold, Gayle D. Bechtold, Niels John Beck, PhD, N. John Beck, PhD, Boyd R. Beck, PhD, Randall D. Beck, Roy T. Beck, Tom G. Beck, Donald J. Beck, Curtis Beck, Craig A. Beck, Lloyd Beck, David F. Beck, Thomas F. Beck, Bill Beck, Curt B. Beck, Ralph Sherman Becker, PhD, Milton Becker, PhD, Gordon Edward Becker, PhD, Robert P. Becker, PhD, Harry Carroll Becker, PhD, Robert S. Becker, PhD, Randolph Armin Becker, Wilbur E. Becker, John C. Becker 3rd, Carl G. Becker, Louis S. Becker, Don Becker, Harold J. Becker Jr., A. D. Beckerdite, A.D. Beckerdite, Richard C. Beckert, Sidney D. Beckett, PhD, Fred E. Beckett, PhD, Rogers H. Beckham, William H. Beckley, Arnold Orville Beckman, PhD, Joseph A. Beckman, PhD, David Beckner, Merrill W. Beckstead, PhD, Scott Beckstrand, Blake D. Beckstrom, Thomas G. Becnel, Glenn W. Bedell, PhD, Thomas Erwin Bedell, PhD, Terrence M. Bedell, Charles Bedell, Rowland Bedell Jr., David F. Bedey, PhD, Kenneth L. Bedford, PhD, Roy M. Bednarski, Rudolph J. Bednarz, Allan Lloyd Bednowitz, PhD, William Clarence Bedoit, PhD, Norman J. Bedwell, Robert L. Beech, PhD, Curtis M. Beecham, PhD, James P. Beecher, Brian P. Beecken, PhD, Donald W. Beegle, Scott K. Beegle, Harold E. Beegle, Kenneth A. Beegles, Giselle Beeker, Wayne R. Beeks, Robert B. Beelman, PhD, James R. Beene, Cari R. Beenenga, Kenneth E. Beeney, David A. Beerbower, Edward Lee Beeson Jr., PhD, Mark Beget, H. Dale Beggs, PhD, Howard Dale Beggs, PhD, O. Beggs, Matthew A. Beglinger, Nicholas Anthony Begovich, PhD, Francis Joseph Behal, PhD, David B. Behar, MD, Pat Behm, Sheeny Behmard, Albert J. Behn, PhD, Wallace B. Behnke Jr., Richard Behrens, PhD, Donald T. Behrens, MD, Herbert Ernest Behrens, Greg P. Behrens, Greg P. Behrens, John Behun, PhD, Rudi Beichel, Alan R. Beiderman, Ralph J. Beiermeister, Theodore Wiseman Beiler, PhD, Anthony J. Beilman, Arthur B. Beindorff, PhD, Walter Frank Beineke, PhD, Daniel D. Beineke, PhD, Carl Adolph Beiser, PhD, John M. Beitia, Paul Bekarik, Ihor Bekersky, PhD, Andrew H. Bekkala, PhD, Jean E. Beland, PhD, Gary Lavern Beland, PhD, Deanna K. Belanger, Richard J. Belanger, Abdeldjelil Belarbi, PhD, Ralph Belcher, PhD, Curtis M. Belden, Curtis M. Belden, Dan Beldy, William W. Bele, Bob W. Belfit, Alfred J. Beljan, Charles Vester Bell, PhD, Wallace Bell, PhD, Mark R. Bell, PhD, Roger A. Bell, PhD, Thomas G. Bell, PhD, Max Ewart Bell, PhD, Bruce M. Bell, PhD, Stanley C. Bell, PhD, John A. Bell, PhD, Victor Bell, John Bell, Leonard W. Bell, Dee J. Bell, James E. Bell, Robert Bell, C. Allen Bell, James M. Bell, Dwight A. Bell, Stephen W. Bell, George C. Bell, Whitten R. Bell, Howard F. Bell, Jeffrey Bell, Gregory J. Bell, John A. Bellak, John C. Bellamy, PhD, James C. Bellamy, MD, David F. Bellan, James R. Bellenoit, Robert C. Beller, Barbara Belli, PhD, Robert W. Bellin, J. C. Belling, Thomas E. Bellinger, Robert G. Bellinger, DVM, Robert J. Bellino, MD, William A. Bellisle, Thomas E. Bellissimo, Thomas J. Bellon Jr., Wade L. Bellon, Robert A. Bellows, PhD, Glen L. Bellows, Eric Bellows, Robert K. Bellue, Donald P. Bellum, Daniel Thomas Belmont, PhD, Francis J. Belmonte, Erwin Belohoubek, PhD, Aleksandr A. Belotserkovskiy, PhD, Randy Belstad, Thomas H. Belter, Delfin J. Beltran, MD, Lisa A. Beltz, PhD, John F. Beltz, Donald R. Belville, MD, Frederick H. Belz, David E. Bemath, John C. Bemath, Paraskevi Mavridis Bemiller, PhD, James Noble Bemiller, PhD, Paul D. Bemis, John W. Ben, Randy L. Bena, David J. Benard, PhD, John Wilfrid Benard, Armando L. Benavides, Robert D. Benbow, Edward J. Benchik, David J. Bender, PhD, Daniel W. Bender, Dean A. Bender, Gilbert G. Bending, Tiffany Bendorf, Deodatta V. Bendre, MD, Raymond L. Bendure, PhD, Paul F. Bene, John P. Benecke, Marlet H. Benedick, Rettig Benedict, PhD, James Harold Benedict, PhD, James Benegne Jr., MD, David M. Benforado, Ashley Bengali, PhD, Ford Benham, Barry P. Benight, John J. Benincasa, Robert G. Bening, Kurt A. Benirschke, MD, H. W. Benischek, John Benjamin, PhD, James A. Benjamin, PhD, W. G. Benjamin, R. L. Benjamin, Lloyd Benjamin, Istvan S. Benko, William G. Benko, Ronald G. Benneman, Kenneth W. Benner, PhD, David R. Benner, Robert I. Benner, Steve J. Bennet, Harold E. Bennett, PhD, George Bennett, PhD, G. Bennett, PhD, albert G. Bennett, PhD, Gerald William Bennett, PhD, William F. Bennett, PhD, Carroll H. Bennett, Clayton A. Bennett, Henry L. Bennett, Charles D. Bennett, Douglas A. Bennett, William W. Bennett, Thomas C. Bennett, Professor Bennett, Alan Bennett, R. S. Bennett, John A. Bennett, Joseph C. Bennett, Donald W. Bennett, John Bennetts, Denicke Bennor, Sharon Benoit, Faycelo L. Bensaid, Sidney A. Bensen, PhD, Andrew A. Benson, PhD, Sidney W. Benson, PhD, Fred C. Benson, PhD, Alvin Benson, PhD, Herbert H. Benson, MD, John D. Benson, Rober Benson, Cade L. Benson, William Benson, Gordon D. Benson, MD, Harold E. Benson, Robert Lloyd Benson, Ray Bentall*, Kenton E. Bentley, PhD, William R. Bentley, DVM, John Bentley, Jack C. Bentley, Allen William Benton, PhD, Reginald H. Benton, Margaret W. Benton, Philip H. Benton, Kenneth E. Benton, Wesley George Bentrude, PhD, John A. Bentsen, John M. Bentz, MD, Duane R. Bentz, Charles M. Bentzen, Edward J. Benz, MD, Bernard D. Benz, Edward John Benz, Ralph E. Benz, George Benzing, MD, Charles R. Bepler, MD, Santo C. Berasi, John A. Berberet, PhD, E. Paul Bercegeay, PhD, Hugh Berckmueller, Leonidas A. Berdugo, Paul J. Berenson, PhD, Rudy J. Beres, John C. Berg, PhD, Edgar L. Berg, Ronald Berg, Andrew W. Berg, Laurence C. Berg, John W. Bergacker, Louis Bergdahl, James M. Berge, Maximilian Hilmar Bergendahl, PhD, Lev I. Berger, PhD, Jay Manton Berger, PhD, Augustus B. Berger, Otto Berger, Roger Berger, Alan Berger, Brian Berger, MD, T. F. Berger, James R. Berger, David Alan Berges, PhD, Kaspar G. Berget, Arne K. Bergh, PhD, John V. Bergh, Rodney H. Bergholm, C. B. Bergin, Marion Joseph Bergin, Ernest Bergman, Oswald R. Bergmann, PhD, Warrem C. Bergmann, Richard A. Bergquist, Dick A. Bergren, PhD, Mike Bergsmg, Rod Bergstedt, Robert Beringer, PhD, Leo H. Berk, MD, Robert D. Berkebile, MD, Glen L. Berkenbile, MD, Donald C. Berkey, M. Berkey, Eric N. Berkhimer, Jan Berkhout, PhD, Daniel Berkman, Ami E. Berkowitz, PhD, William I. Berks, Alexander T. Berkulis, John J. Berky, PhD, Jerry D. Berlin, PhD, David T. Berlin, Ted Gibbs Berlincourt, PhD, Gary C. Berliner, William G. Berlinger, Eugene Berman, PhD, Elliot Berman, PhD, Marshall Berman, PhD, Baruch Berman, Brian Berman, Lawrence Uretz Berman, Curtis L. Bermel, Peter F. Bermel, Christopher K. Bern, Franklin Sogandares Bernal, PhD, Ray A. Bernard, PhD, William D. Bernardi, Louis Bernath, PhD, Richard A. Bernhard, Andre Bernier, Warren Walt Berning, Simon S. Bernstein, PhD, Kenneth M. Bernstein, Joseph S. Bernstein, MD, Joseph M. Bero, Jody A. Berquist, DVM, Julius R. Berreth, Dave Berrier, Lester P. Berriman, James Wesley Berry, PhD, Edwin X. Berry, PhD, Roy A. Berry, PhD, Herbert Weaver Berry, PhD, David Berry, PhD, Robert Walter Berry, PhD, Carl E. Berry, Daniel S. Berry, Dan Berry, William H. Berry, Robert W. Berry, John R. Berryhill, PhD, David J. Berryman, Richard G. Berryman, James E. Berryman, M. Bersch, PhD, Charles Frank Bersch, R. Berson, PhD, Albert C. Bersticker, Charles W. Bert, PhD, Robert G. Bertagne, Allen J. Bertagne, Leonard Bertagnolli, Christopher Anthony Bertelo, PhD, Bruce Irving Bertelsen, Kevin J. Bertermann, Siegried R. Berthelsford, MD, Cornelius E. Berthold, Daniel D. Bertin, Frances M. Berting, PhD, James H. Bertke, William M. Berton, MD, Gregory W. Bertram, Robert L. Bertram, Bertram Rodney Bertramson, PhD, Richard J. Bertrand, Oran L. Bertsch, Georgw J. Bertuccelli, Thomas E. Berty, Bruce A. Berwager, Arlen D. Besel, James J. Besemer, Robert E. Beshara, Joseph M. Beskit, Howard H. Bess, MD, Robert G. Best, PhD, William P. Best, Jeffrey J. Best, Larry W. Best, MD, Robert C. Beste, Paul R. Beswick, Arthur F. Betchart, Dennis W. Bethel, Robert K. Bethel, Donna F. Bethell, Peter J. Bethell, James A. Bethke, Nedavia Bethlahmy, PhD, Harry E. Betsill, G. W. Bettge, George W. Bettge, John C. Bettinger, MD, Douglas N. Betts, Andrew J. Betts, Austin Wortham Betts*, Harry M. Betzig, Charles G. Beudette, Arnold G. Beukelman, DVM, S. Beus, PhD, William F. Beuth, Ernest Beutler, MD, Carl E. Beutler, Jack S. Bevan, Rowland Scott Bevans, PhD, Vladislav A. Bevc, PhD, Dimitri Beve, PhD, Joseph John Bevelacqua, PhD, Robert G. Beverly, Vicky L. Bevilacqua, PhD, Vincent Darell Bevill, Albert Joseph Bevolo, PhD, Cecil Bewner, Richard O. Beyea, John Beyeler, John H. Beyer, PhD, Brooke A. Beyer, MD, Curt G. Beyer, Thomas A. Beyerl, Floyd Hilbert Beyerlein, PhD, James M. Beyl, Georgy Bezkorovainy, Rahul S. Bhaduri, Tirlochan S. Bhat, Ashok K. Bhatnagar, Maneesh Bhatnagar, Swapan K. Bhattacharlee, PhD, Debanshu Bhattacharya, PhD, Eguene R. Biagi, Fred V. Biagini, Andrew L. Biagioni, John M. Biancardi, Peter F. Bianchetta, Joseph D. Bianchi, Carl J. Bianchini, Kenneth Del Bianco, Paul D. Bianculli, MD, John A. Bianucci, William Robert Bibb, PhD, John W. Bibber, PhD, George Bibel, PhD, Conrad Biber, PhD, George A. Bicher, Katherine Bichler, PhD, Hans Bichsel, PhD, Michael D. Bick, PhD, William S. Bickel, PhD, Rudolf Bickel, MD, Arden E. Bicker, Peter W. Bickers, Karin Bickford, Lewis J. Bicking Jr., Donald B. Bickler, William Elbert Bickley, PhD, Ervin F. Bickley Jr., Ervin F. Bickley Jr., Donald G. Bickmore, Alan P. Biddle, PhD, Jean M. Bidlack, PhD, Lawrence Romaine Bidwell, PhD, Charles F. Bieber, Daniel C. Bieberitz, John A. Bieberitz, Lauren K. Bieg, Edward R. Biehl, PhD, Stanley J. Biel Jr., Kenneth L. Bielat, PhD, Yan Bielek, Bill J. Bielek, Richard J. Bielicki, Klaus Biemann, PhD, Darrel Rudolph Bienz, PhD, Lawrence M. Bienz, Gregg Bierei, George J. Bierker, Theo Karl Bierlein, PhD, Richard V. Bierman, Wallace J. Bierman, J. Bierman, Joseph F. Bieron, PhD, Jerry N. Biery, Harvey A. Biesel, Doug N. Biewitt, Jean M. Bigaouette, Donald N. Bigbie, Timothy A. Bigelow, PhD, Professor Bigelow, PhD, J. E. Bigelow, John Edward Bigelow, Donald Bigg, PhD, Charles Biggers, PhD, R. Dale Biggs, PhD, James Biggs, PhD, Rodney Errol Bigler, PhD, David A. Bigler, Arthur C. Bigley Jr., Robert Paul Bigliano, William Bihrle, Dean Bilden, Keith L. Bildstein, PhD, John Merlyn Bilhorn, Daniel R. Billbrey, Roger A. Billhardt, Jerry C. Billings, Kip A. Billings, Russell A. Billings, David L. Billingsley Jr., Ted F. Billington, Kenneth William Billman, PhD, George Edward Billman, PhD, Dan A. Billman, D. G. Bills, PhD, John Lawrence Bills, PhD, Charles R. Bills, Charles J. Billwiller, Lawrence Bilodeau, Larry Bilodeau, Edward George Bilpuch, PhD, Robert Bilski, Paul A. Bilunos, MD, Terrence L. Bimle, Franklin L. Binder, PhD, Jack C. Binford, Arthur Bing, PhD, Billy Elias Bingham, PhD, Edward R. Binglam, Lisa Binkley, Stephen E. Binney, PhD, Layton C. Binon, R. L. Binsley, William W. Bintzer*, Michael Binzer, Norman Birch, Matthew C. Birch, Michael A. Birch, M. J. Birck, Robert W. Birckhead, Kenneth Bird, PhD, Samuel Oscar Bird II, PhD, Charles F. Bird, Peter Bird, Chris M. Bird, E. F. Birdsall, PhD, John R. Birdwell, Gene R. Birdwell, Jack N. Birk, William P. Birkemeier, PhD, George Birman, Seymour J. Birstein, Craig E. Bisceglia, James Louden Bischoff, PhD, Alfred F. Bischoff, Robert Francis Bischoff, James Merlin Bisett, Gerald E. Bisgard, PhD, Amin Bishara, Kim Bishop, PhD, John William Bishop, PhD, Guy William Bishop, PhD, Richard S. Bishop, PhD, Richard H. Bishop, PhD, Raymond E. Bishop, Clifford R. Bishop, J. Bishop, Dennis W. Bishop, Marshall D. Bishop, James A. Bishop Jr., Richard E. Bishop, Alan R. Bishop, Joe O. Bishop, Martin T. Bishop, Floyd A. Bishop, David Bishop, Ramon E. Bisque, PhD, Daniel Bisque, Matthew L. Bisque, Michael G. Bissell, MD, Alex F. Bissett, Kenneth A. Bisson, John P. Biswurm, J. L. Bitner, James V. Bitner, Robert F. Bitner, MD, Joseph W. Bitsock, MD, Robert Bittle, PhD, Harlan Fletcher Bittner, PhD, Burt James Bittner, Rebecca B. Bittner, Benny Bixenman, Curtis S. Bixler, Charles D. Bizilj, William A. Bizjak, James J. Bjaloncik, Thomas E. Bjerke, Linman O. Bjerken, Lars L. Bjorkman, MD, Sidney C. Bjorlie, Eugene N. Bjornstad, Paul A. Blacharski, Charles H. Black, PhD, Darvil K. Black, PhD, Wayne Edward Black, PhD, David L. Black, PhD, Dean Black, PhD, James R. Black, Melvin L. Black, Christopher R. Black, Don Black, Raymond J. Black, John S. Black, Barbara O. Black, Tomas H. Black, Charles E. Black, Donald E. Black, Victoria V. Black, MD, Dennis Black, Sammy M. Black, William L. Black, Jon Blackburn, Larry G. Blackburn, Randolph Russell Blackburn, Brian D. Blackburn, Albert W. Blackburn, Lloyd P. Blackburn, Harold L. Blackledge, Thomas E. Blackman, John F. Blackmer, Jerry M. Blackmon, James C. Blackmon, Donald H. Blackwell, William L. Blackwell, M. L. Blackwell, Michael Blackwell, Brian H. Blackwell, Steve Blaglock, Eli W. Blaha, PhD, Clarence L. Blahnik, MD, Paul M. Blaiklock, PhD, R. G. Blain, Willis J. Blaine, Michael M. Blaine, E. Allan Blair, PhD, Charles M. Blair, PhD, Paul V. Blair, PhD, Edward S. Blair, Barry Blair, Mary L. Blair, Luther L. Blair, Albert R. Blair, James K. Blaircom, Douglas R. Blais, DVM, John R. Blaisdell, Wilson Blake, PhD, Rolland Laws Blake, PhD, Kevin M. Blake, Alan L. Blake, Bruce A. Blake, George R. Blake, Dav Blakenhagen, J. Warren Blaker, PhD, Robert B. Blakestad, Francis Louis Blanc, Richard Lee Blanchard, PhD, Dean M. Blanchard, Leroy E. Blanchard, Stephen T. Blanchard, Brooks K. Blanchard, Donald W. Blancher, Lorraine T. Blanck, C. Dudley Blancke, Thomas T. Blanco, Richard C. Bland, William M. Bland Jr., Thomas E. Blandford, Philip J. Blank, PhD, Robert V. Blanke, PhD, Paul R. Blankenhorn, PhD, James C. Blankenship, Marc E. Blankenship, Linda D. Blankenship, Michael S. Blankinship Jr., Thomas L. Blanton, PhD, Scott C. Blanton, PhD, Joseph S. Blanton, Ron J. Blanton, Robert E. Blanz, PhD, William Edward Blas, Nik Blaser, John R. Blasing, Barbara Blass, PhD, Paul J. Blastos, MD, Catherine E. Blat, Dean A. Blatchford, Charles Blatchley, PhD, Ronald K. Blatchley, Joel J. Blatt, PhD, Robert C. Blatz, Henry H. Blau, PhD, Clyde Blauer, Karl T. Blaufuss, George Albert Blay, PhD, G. Blaylock, Gilbert K. Bleck, Ralph C. Bledsoe, Larry J. Bledsoe, W. N. Bledsoe, Douglas Bledsoe, Minnerd A. Blegen, Sheldon Joseph Bleicher, MD, Rodney L. Bleifull, PhD, Carl Bleil, PhD, William Bleimeister, John Blethen, PhD, Gilbert Sanders Blevins, PhD, Robert Blevins, Zegmund O. Bleviss, PhD, William Blew, W. R. Blew, Charles William Blewett, PhD, David Blewett, Edward Forrest Blick, PhD, Donald J. Blickwede, PhD, Victor V. Bliden, Roger P. Bligh, Raymond Blinn, Warren M. Bliss, Ernest L. Bliss, DVM, Brian Bliss, Warren M. Bliss, George K. Bliss, William R. Block, George A. Block, Robert W. Blocker, Max R. Blodgett, John G. Bloemer, C. James Blom, PhD, Christian James Blom, PhD, Dexter W. Blome, PhD, Leonard C. Blomquist, David L. Blomquist, Ralph N. Blomster, PhD, Robert L. Blood, MD, John Bloom, PhD, Duane N. Bloom, PhD, Harvey J. Bloom, James A. Bloom, George Bloomsburg, PhD, Joe Bloomsburg, Stan Blossom, Rodney J. Blouch, John C. Bloxham, DVM, William V. Bluck, M. Donald Blue, PhD, James W. Blue, PhD, Claire Bluestein, PhD, Marlene Bluestein, MD, Aaron Led Bluhm, PhD, Harold Frederick Bluhm, Kurt E. Blum, PhD, Samuel Blum, Fred M. Blum, Marvin E. Blumberg, Robert R. Blume, M. Blumenberg, PhD, Larry D. Blumer, Vern Allen Blumhagen, Tedde R. Blunck, G. Bluzas, Sheri L. Blystone, PhD, Professor Boa The Chu, PhD, Charles W. Boak, Warren P. Boardman, John K. Boarman, Lawrence T. Boatman, Don A. Boatman, Joshua T. Boatwright, Virgil L. Boaz, PhD, John G. Bobak, Robert S. Bobbitt, Jack E. Bobek, Edward S. Bober, Thomas C. Boberg, PhD, Carl Bobkoski, Sergey Boblcov, Terry Bobo, Charles Bocage, Donald R. Bocast, Anthony Vincent Boccabella, PhD, David Bochnowich, Jane Haskett Bock, PhD, Wayne Dean Bock, PhD, Gene Bock, Keith R. Bock, Richard F. Bock, Fred G. Bock, Richard M. Bockhorst, Gene E. Bockmier, Mary M. Bockus, Lawrence C. Boczar, Paul J. Boczek, Bohdan K. Boczkaj, PhD, David Edwin Boddy, PhD, Loren E. Bode, PhD, Arthur Palfrey Bode, PhD, Kenneth E. Bodek, George B. Boder, Larry P. Bodin, Daniel G. Bodine, Gerald R. Bodman, Stephen J. Bodnar, PhD, Frank T. Bodurtha, PhD, Willard A. Bodwell, Jason W. Boeckel, Robert J. Boehle, Frank R. Boehm Jr., Hollis Boehme, PhD, Carl R. Boehme, Carl R. Boehme, E. Boehmer, Charles Nelson Boehms, PhD, Todd E. Boehne, Howard Boeing, Peter Boer, PhD, Glenn C. Boerke, Jack E. Boers, PhD, David H. Boes, Gerald S. Boesch Jr., Arthur W. Boesler 3rd, Paul L. Boettcher, William E. Boettger, Anton C. Bogaty Jr., Philip D. Bogdonoff, PhD, Seymour M. Bogdonoff, Bernard L. Bogema, J. Neil Boger, Bruce Plympton Bogert, PhD, Steven Allan Boggs, PhD, Colleen H. Boggs, William Emmerson Boggs, Johnny Boggs, ****** K. Bogle, Kevin Michael Bohacs, PhD, Cody B. Bohall, Leo R. Bohanick, Barry Bohannon, John M. Bohannon, Joseph Terril Bohanon, PhD, Nicholas Bohensky, Haig E. Bohigian, PhD, Carl D. Bohl, John E. Bohl, DVM, Richard A. Bohling, Michael A. Bohls, Mark Bohm, Thomas M. Bohn, Dale V. Bohnenberger, William M. Bohon, Johhnie J. Bohuslav, Kees Boi, PhD, Randy L. Boice, Gaston A. Boissard, Norman Robert Boisse, PhD, Charles Edward Boklage, PhD, Dennis B. Bokovoy, Jack C. Bokros, PhD, Jonathan D. Boland, Mike Boland, Craig H. Boland, Arthur F. Boland, Karl R. Boldt, Paul W. Boldt, Robert G. Boldue, Wladimir E. Boldyreff, Lawrence G. Bole, MD, Regnald A. Boles, Mark S. Boley, PhD, Robert B. Boley, PhD, Mark S. Boley, N. Charles Bolgiano, PhD, Nicholas Charles Bolgiano, PhD, Dean Bolick, Gregory E. Bolin, Robert G. Boling, Gerald L. Bolingbroke, PhD, Harry Joseph Boll, PhD, Eugene Bollay, Edward H. Bollenger, PhD, Bruce Bollermann, C. Bollfrass, Charles Bollfrass, James C. BolliBon, Frank R. Bollig, Clay B. Bollin, Edward Harry Bollinger, PhD, Irwin H. Bollinger, DVM, A. Bollmeier, Laszlo J. Bollyky, PhD, Robert L. Bolmer, Harold L. Bolnick, MD, John A. Bologna, Gerald J. Bologna, Sam Bolognia, Donald A. Bolon, PhD, Ellen D. Bolotin, PhD, Mary Ann Bolte, MD, W. Kline Bolton, MD, John Joseph Boltralik, James F. Boltz, Kelsey L. Boltz, Donald H. Boltz, Sam T. Boltz Jr., Charles M. Bolus, MD, Dudley Bolyard, E. Arthur Bolz, PhD, Everett A. Bolz, MD, Arthur Bolz, MD, Jeffery L. Bolze, Scott Boman, Jerry C. Bommer, PhD, Blair E. Bona, PhD, Glenn G. Bonacum, MD, Joseph C. Bonadiman, PhD, Gregory M. Bonaguide, S. Bonar, Samuel G. Bonasso, Charles G. Boncelet, PhD, Victor Bond, PhD, Walter D. Bond, PhD, Desmond H. Bond, William Bond, Patrick L. Bond, Stephon Thomas Bond, Morris Reiner Bonde, PhD, James M. Bondi, Terry Bonds, James H. Bonds, MD, J. R. Bone, Jim Bone, Shirley C. Bone, Jay Frank Bonell, Susan *****, Oliver P. Bonesteel, Lee J. Bongirno, Lawrence P. Bonicatto, L. P. Bonifaci, Laszlo Joseph Bonis, PhD, Richard S. Bonn, John Franklin Bonner, PhD, Charles M. Bonner, Charles S. Bonnery, MD, Fred M. Bonnett, Michael T. Bonnoitt, Patrick V. Bonsignore, PhD, Peter Frank Bonventre, PhD, Aundra G. Booher Nix, Stephen Alan Book, PhD, Robert A. Book, PhD, Lewis D. Book, Ray Book, Raymond H. Book Jr., Clay Booker, PhD, Arnold B. Booker, R. J. Boomer, Jack N. Boone, PhD, James E. Boone, PhD, Travis J. Boone, Daniel R. Boone, Paul M. Boonen, PhD, Warren J. Boord, William V. Booream, E. S. Boorneson, Larry Boos, PhD, Nicholas H. Booth, PhD, David L. Booth, PhD, Bruce W. Booth, PhD, Charles D. Booth, Arthur S. Booth Jr., MD, Wayne E. Booth, Robert M. Booth, Elton T. Booth, Edward J. Booth, Robert R. Boothe Jr., Edward M. Boothe, Geoffrey Boothroyd, PhD, Richard E. Boozer, Frederick Bopp III, PhD, Sunder S. Bora, PhD, Hamid Borazjani, PhD, Samia Borchers, MD, William Borchers, Edgar A. Borda, MD, W. Bordeaux, James H. Bordelon, Robert S. Borden, MD, L. Bordenave, Stuart Boreen, Theodore T. Borek II, Steven C. Borell, J. B. Boren, PhD, Robert Bores, PhD, Iris Borg, PhD, Robert M. Borg, Dan Borganes, PhD, Philip Borgending, Frank R. Borger, Jerry Borges, David P. Borgeson, William G. Borghard, PhD, P. R. Borgmeier, PhD, Dan Borgnaes, PhD, W. K. Borgsmiller, MD, James L. Borin, J. Borin, John W. Boring, PhD, Walter A. Bork, David Borkholder, PhD, Alexej B. Borkovec, PhD, Annette H. Borkowski, Manfred D. Borks, PhD, Harold Joseph Born, PhD, Dwight D. Bornemeier, PhD, William R. Bornhorst, Robert Clare Bornmann, MD, Thomas G. Borowiak, Raul H. Borrastero, Sebastian R. Borrello, Gerald F. Borrmann, David Borronam, Professor Borsari, Anthony G. Borschneck, Dale L. Borths, Walter S. Bortko, Louis Percival Bosanquet, PhD, Randal S. Bose, Ernest R. Bosetti, Benjamin A. Bosher*, William E. Bosken, Robert B. Bosler Jr., George Bosmajian, PhD, Joseph N. Bosnak, Kenneth Jay Boss, PhD, Harold O. Boss, William K. Boss Jr., MD, David Boss, Paul N. Bossart Jr., Robert W. Bosse, Peter B. Bosserman, Robert Perry Bosshart, PhD, Thomas H. Bossler, Robert Bossung, Howard William Bost, PhD, Keith A. Bostian, PhD, Joseph F. Boston, PhD, Andrew Chester Boston, PhD, Jack M. Bostrack, PhD, Steve Boswell, Steven T. Boswell, George M. Boswell, MD, Sorin M. Bota, Daniel C. Boteler, Dan C. Boteler, Aksel Arnold Bothner, PhD, John N. Botkin, Danil Botoshanksky, Margurette E. Bottje, PhD, William George Bottjer, PhD, Edmond Milton Bottorff, PhD, Gerald W. Bottrell, Kathleen B. Bottroff, Truman Arthur Botts, PhD, John W. Botts, Kenwood A. Botzner, Jim D. Boucher, Michel Boudart, PhD, John Harland Boughton, PhD, Paul Andre Bouis, PhD, John Boulet, George Boulter, Robert L. Boulware, Arnold Heiko Bouma, PhD, John C. Bourgeois, Robert H. Bourke, PhD, Kenneth P. Bourke, Douglas A. Bourne, Mohamed Boutjdir, PhD, Daniel P. Boutross, R. K. Boutwell, PhD, Jerome Boutwell, Harvey B. Boutwell, Gerardus D. Bouw, PhD, Steven L. Bouws, Paul K. Bouz, MD, George I. Bovadiieff, Harry Elmo Bovay Jr., John F. Bovenzi, PhD, Thomas A. Bover, Leroy V. Bovey, Emil J. Bovich, Henry Bovin, William C. Bowden, Anthony John Bowdler, PhD, Joseph Carles Bowe, PhD, Roscoe C. Bowen, PhD, H. Kent Bowen, PhD, Peter F. Bowen, Richard D. Bowen, Richard P. Bowen, Mark Bowen, Dwight L. Bowen, DVM, John Roy Bower Jr., PhD, Charles Arthur Bower, PhD, Warren H. Bower, David Bower, Richard O. Bowerman, Wendell Bowers, John Bowers, William M. Bowers, Larry Q. Bowers, Clifford R. Bowers, Clifford W. Bowers, Robert Clarence Bowers, Maurice M. Bowers, Susan H. Bowers, MD, Sydney D. Bowers, Clarence Bowers, Dennis L. Bowers, Paul R. Bowers, Roger L. Bowers, Ed Bowersox, Frank J. Bowery Jr., Sidney A. Bowhill, PhD, Robert M. Bowie, PhD, Randy Bowie, Jean A. Bowles, PhD, Doug R. Bowles, Gary R. Bowles, Lamar D. Bowles, Kaydell C. Bowles, David Bowlin, Robert Edward Bowling, PhD, William E. Bowlus, MD, L. W. Bowman, PhD, Lewis Wilmer Bowman, PhD, Robert S. Bowman, PhD, Jan Bowman, James L. Bowman, James L. Bowman, Gerald L. Bowman, Arthur F. Bowman, Marion R. Bowman, Charles Bowman, Donald C. Bowman, Ricky L. Bowman, Norman E. Bowne, Colin Bowness, PhD, C. Stuart Bowyer, PhD, James Ellis Box, PhD, James L. Box, B. W. Box, Chris Boxell, MD, Michael Boxer, MD, Gale Clark Boxill, PhD, Kevin W. Boyack, PhD, Robert E. Boyar, Steven C. Boyce, PhD, Stephen G. Boyce, PhD, Wilson E. Boyce, David Boyce, John T. Boyce, D. Boyd, PhD, Frederick Mervin Boyd, PhD, Phillip A. Boyd, PhD, Willis Boyd Sr., Harry R. Boyd, Richard A. Boyd, MD, Timothy M. Boyd, Dale W. Boyd Sr., MD, Robert Boyd III, Jimmy W. Boyd REM, James Boyd, Richard G. Boyd, Roger L. Boyell, William D. Boyer, PhD, Lester L. Boyer Jr., PhD, Gary Boyer, PhD, Paul S. Boyer, PhD, Robert Allen Boyer, PhD, Robert Ernst Boyer, PhD, Delbert D. Boyer, Karl W. Boyer, Alan D. Boyer, Scott C. Boyer, Kim R. Boyer, Lance Boyer, Brad B. Boyer, Ralph L. Boyes, James A. Boyes, Ben M. Boykin, Brian J. Boyle, DVM, Richard J. Boyle, Patrick Boyle, John J. Boyle, John F. Boyle, MD, John H. Boyles Jr., MD, William F. Bozich, PhD, Joseph C. Bozik, Professor Bozlee, PhD, R. Braatz, PhD, Ben Brabb, PhD, Dennis Brabec, Matthew A. Braccio, John D. Brack, Fred W. Brackebusch, Sherry L. Brackeen, Barth Bracken, Brett K. Bracken, Robert Giles Brackett, PhD, James C. Brackmor, David Brackney, Dorothy L. Bradbury, James A. Bradbury, Joseph V. Braddock, PhD, Charles D. Braden, Lincoln L. Braden, Shawn Braden, Lawrence Glenn Bradford, PhD, William C. Bradford, Francis J. Bradford, DVM, Daniel C. Bradish, Robert Foster Bradley, PhD, Andrew E. Bradley, John J. Bradley, MD, Robert S. Bradley, Paul R. Bradley, Gary L. Bradley, DVM, William Earle Bradley, Vincent H. Bradley, MD, Bruce Bradley, Michael L. Bradley, Andrew N. Bradley, MD, W. Newman Bradshaw, PhD, Martin Daniel Bradshaw, PhD, Michael W. Bradshaw, Jerry A. Bradshaw, George Bradshaw, George B. Bradshaw, Samuel Bradshaw, Charles M. Bradshaw, Derek Bradstreet, Redford H. Bradt, PhD, F. P. Brady, PhD, Peggy A. Brady, PhD, Thomas Brady, PhD, Matthew E. Brady, William B. Brady, Bob D. Brady Jr., Jerry A. Brady, MD, Samuel B. Brady IV, John J. Brady, John R. Brady, Robert Brady, William J. Brady, William J. Brady, MD, S. D. Brady III, Mark S. Braekevelt, Donald M. Brafford, Edward L. Bragg Sr., Elizabeth Braham, Richard G. Braham, Douglas G. Braid, Grigore Braileanu, PhD, Alan David Brailsford, PhD, Walton K. Brainerd, MD, J. C. Brakensiek, Don L. Braker, Randal J. Braker, Robert H. Brakman, Eric M. Bram, David Brambury, Keneth A. Brame, Bruce Livingston Bramfitt, PhD, John W. Bramhall, Ernest T. Bramwell, Lyle A. Branagan, PhD, Erwin F. Branahl, Emanuel L. Brancato, Leo J. Brancato, Cynthia R. Branch, Peter B. Brand, Bruce B. Brand, Richard Brand, Stanley George Brandenberger, PhD, Thomas Brandlein, Greg R. Brandon, Edward Newman Brandt, PhD, William Henry Brandt, PhD, Francis A. Brandt, John T. Brandt, MD, James A. Brandt, Raymond J. Brandt, Robert E. Brandt, Robert E. Brandt, Thomas Brandt, William L. Brandt, Alan D. Branham, Patrick G. Brannac, Raymond Brannan, PhD, Michael S. Brannan, Mike Brannen, Ross E. Brannian, Charles T. Brannon, MD, Carl F. Branson, Anne F. Bransoum, DVM, Albert Wade Brant, PhD, Albert J. Brant, Glenn S. Brant, William W. Brant, William H. Branum, Webb Emmett Braselton, PhD, Bradley A. Brasfield, John F. Brass, Arthur M. Brate, George R. Bratton Jr., PhD, Professor Bratzatt, PhD, Charles Bratzrus, Brian L. Brau, Brian W. Braudaway, Stanton H. Braude, PhD, Richard H. Braumlich, Wesley J. Braun, Thomas E. Braun, Jeff D. Braun, Bruce A. Braun, Harvey H. Braun, Arvid J. Braun, Jennifer L. Braun, David Braun, Frank J. Braun, Jeffrey M. Braun, Kennethe Martin Brauner, PhD, Richard H. Braunlich, Allan R. Brause, PhD, Johnny A. Brawner, MD, Thomas N. Braxtan, MD, Ben G. Bray, PhD, Bruce G. Lenn Bray, PhD, Bruce G. Bray, PhD, William H. Bray, MD, Timothy J. Bray, MD, Carl W. Bray, Warren D. Brayton, James F. Brayton, James P. Brazel, William Thomas Brazelton, PhD, Bruce H. Brazelton, William Breach, Ernest Breaux, Theodore M. Breaux, Jimmy L. Breazeale, MD, Kenneth J. Breazeale, Lee Brecher, PhD, James I. Breckenfeld, MD, Robert L. Breckenridge, MD, Claude E. Breed, Townsend D. Breeden, James C. Breeding, Reginald J. Breeding, Larry Breeding, Merlin Breen, PhD, Robert J. Breen, David M. Breen, William M. Breene, PhD, Sydney Salisbury Breese, Bob Breeze, Martin Bregman, PhD, E. J. Bregmann, John E. Brehm Sr., James D. Brehove, Robert L. Breidenbaugh, B. M. Breining, Berryman M. Breining, Thomas O. Breitling, Ted Breitmayer, C. H. Breittenfelder, A. C. Breller, Ross J. Bremer, Charles F. Bremigan, Bart J. Bremmer, Harry L. Brendgen, Darwin Brendlinger, William C. Breneman, Alan S. Brengle, Harold Brennan, Sean P. Brennan, John P. Brennan, Michael J. Brennan, MD, William Brennan, Abner Brenner, PhD, Kurt Brenner, Henry W. Brenniman Jr., J. Allen Brent, PhD, William B. Brent, PhD, David K. Brese, Lloyd J. Bresley, Frederick S. Breslin, PhD, Jan ****** Breslow, John H. Bress, Marcus N. Bressler, Joseph N. Breston, PhD, William M. Bretherton Jr., Manuel Martin Bretscher, PhD, Peter R. Brett, William A. Brett, Randolph Henry Bretton, Harold W. Bretz, PhD, Robert E. Bretz, PhD, Charles W. Bretzman, Andrew J. Breuder, Charles B. Breuer, PhD, Charles B. Brever, PhD, Jerald R. Brevick, PhD, James Brewbaker, PhD, James Brewbaker, PhD, Joseph L. Brewer, PhD, Gregory J. Brewer, PhD, Walter B. Brewer, Michael B. Brewer, Joe E. Brewer, Jeb E. Brewer, Timothy J. Brewer, Ken N. Brewer, Monroe F. Brewer, Richard L. Brewer, Doug Brewer, J. R. Brewer, Herbert L. Brewer, Philip W. Brewer, Robert N. Brey, PhD, Robert N. Brey, Edward J. Breyere, PhD, Edward Breyere, PhD, Darlene Rita Brezinski, PhD, P. L Thibaut Brian, PhD, Pierre Leonce T Brian, PhD, Theodore C. Brice, C. Carroll Brice, Owen P. Bricker III, PhD, Paul P. Bricknell, MD, Greg A. Bridenstine, Alan G. Bridge, PhD, Stephen G. Bridge, John Bridge, Kevin V. Bridge, William J. Bridgeforth, Luther W. Bridges, PhD, Robert M. Bridges, Philip M. Bridges, Lindell C. Bridges, James H. Bridges, Gunnars J. Briedis, Claudia Briell, Mark O. Brien, James A. Brierley, PhD, Corale Louise Brierley, PhD, Corale L. Brierley, PhD, David A. Brierley, James E. Briggs, PhD, Steve Briggs, PhD, Dale Edward Briggs, PhD, W. Briggs, PhD, Robert Briggs, Blaschke Briggs, Jeff Briggs, Mike Briggs, David Briggs, Arthur R. Briggs, Thomas H. Brigham, MD, Robert B. Brigham, Mont J. Bright Jr., Lawrence S. Bright, Steve H. Brigman, Tom P. Brignac, Karen Brignac, Bruce Edwin Briley, PhD, W. R. Briley, PhD, James P. Brill, PhD, Richard Brill, Frank Brimelow, Robert A. Brimmer, MD, Joseph Brinck, Clifton Briner, Allan Briney, MD, Robert P. Bringer, PhD, Lynn H. Bringhurst, Donald F. Brink, PhD, Ed A. Brink, Phil N. Brink, Randall A. Brink, Dean A. Brink, Fred E. Brinker, Tyler Brinker, Edwin C. Brinker, Dean C. Brinkman, Larry K. Brinkman, MD, Larry Brinkman, Alan J. Brinkmann, PhD, Raymond Samuel Brinkmey, PhD, Michael W. Brinkmeyer, James Brinks, PhD, Thomas R. Brinner, PhD, John R. Brinson, James A. Brinton, MD, Richard K. Brinton, Chirs Brioli, R. Brisbin, Anne M. Briscoe, PhD, Mike Briscoe, Doyle G. Briscoe, James A. Briscoe, Philander B. Briscoe, MD, Thomas A. Brisken, Francis M. Brislawn, Niz Brissette, David W. Bristol, Ray O. Bristol, Earl Bristow, Wesley G. Britson, John Oliver Brittain, PhD, Joe P. Brittain, Paul Brittain, Michael Brittan, PhD, Wayne Brittian, Gloria C. Britton, Gloria C. Britton, Ronald A. Britton, Morris L. Britton, MD, Michael W. Britton, Robert Britton, Alfred Carter Broad, PhD, B. J. Broad, Francis Everett Broadbent, PhD, H. Smith Broadbent, PhD, H. Smith Broadbent, PhD, Hyrum Smith Broadbent, PhD, Robert C. Broadbent, Albert Le Broadfoot, PhD, Sue Broadston, Frederick N. Broberg, Paul R. Brochu, E. J. Brock, PhD, George William Brock, Buford L. Brock, Jeffrey D. Brock, Howard M. Brock, James P. Brock, MD, H. Kent Brock, Rainer H. Brocke, PhD, Ernest F. Brockelbank, Edwin C. Brockenbrough, MD, Douglas A. Brockhaus, Jack A. Brockman, Lawrence R. Brockman, John A. Brockwell Sr., Karel M. Broda, Ivor Brodie, PhD, Tammy A. Brodie, DVM, Ronald F. Brodrick, Steven R. Brody, William J. Brody, MD, Russell G. Broecklemann, William J. Broene, F. S. Broerman, Randall A. Broesch, Woody Brofman, PhD, Kevin J. Brogan, PhD, Robert Walter Broge, PhD, Edward C. Broge, PhD, Ronald J. Bromenschenk, Jerome Bromkowski, MD, David Allan Bromley, PhD, Richard K. Bronder, Lawrence E. Bronec, Timothy C. Bronn, Phiilip F. Bronowitz, Charles E. Bronson, Mark Bronson, John D. Bronson, Boyd C. Bronson, John M. Bronstein, PhD, Mark A. Bronston, PhD, John W. Brook, PhD, Hampton Ralph Brooker, PhD, Beth M. Brookhouse, Richard P. Brookman, Lionel H. Brooks, PhD, Robert A. Brooks, PhD, Robert R. Brooks, PhD, James Elwood Brooks, PhD, Kent Brooks, PhD, Dean C. Brooks, James R. Brooks, John Brooks, N. P. Brooks, Bruce C. Brooks, Fred A. Brooks, James S. Brooks, Gordon Brooks, Britt E. Brooks, Royce G. Brooks, Steven D. Brooks, Casey Brooks, James E. Brookshire, Paul Wallace Broome, PhD, Frank Broome, Richard E. Broschat, John R. Brose, W. E. Broshears, Bryan C. Bross, Fred B. Brost, Ronald D. Brost, Charles O. Brostrom, PhD, William F. Brothers Jr., Robert John Brotherton, PhD, John K. Brough, Lawrence U. Brough, Thomas S. Brough, Walter Brouillette, PhD, Paul C. Broun, MD, Matthew Broussard, Francis W. Broussard, Mary J. Broussard, John W. Broviac, MD, Jack F. Browder Jr., Kay Robert Brower, PhD, Thomas Dudley Brower, MD, J. Brower, Allen S. Brower, Rick A. Brower, Robert Alan Brown, PhD, James Melton Brown, PhD, Kenneth Taylor Brown, PhD, James R. Brown, PhD, John M. Brown, PhD, Charles J. Brown Jr., PhD, Bahngrell W. Brown, PhD, David P. Brown, PhD, Herbert Brown, PhD, Arlen Brown, PhD, Gerald Richard Brown, PhD, Richard B. Brown, PhD, Robert E. Brown, PhD, Olen Ray Brown, PhD, Henry S. Brown, PhD, Albert L. Brown, PhD, William M. Brown, PhD, Robert S. Brown, PhD, Lewis F. Brown, PhD, Leonard F. Brown Jr., PhD, Murray Allison Brown, PhD, Robert G. Brown, PhD, Glenn Lamar Brown, PhD, Billings Brown, PhD, Jerry W. Brown, PhD, Elise A. Brown, PhD, Ronald A. Brown, PhD, Alfred L. Brown, Delton L. Brown Jr., Richard E. Brown, MD, Stephen R. Brown, Lansing E. Brown, MD, S. Kent Brown, MD, Will K
Theaetetus
 
  1  
Reply Wed 1 Jul, 2009 11:56 pm
@Theaetetus,
The problem though, is that when society produces these "greenhouse gases," they often produce many other toxic by-products that do harm the environment and doing irreparable damage to ecosystems. For example one major pollutant given off from burning coal is sulfur dioxide.
0 Replies
 
RDRDRD1
 
  1  
Reply Wed 1 Jul, 2009 11:58 pm
@BrightNoon,
Why don't you read some of the critiques of this petition? Try to find out how many of those signatures have been gamed or are simply people with no more expertise in this than yourself. The only person you're convincing is yourself and that appears to be pushing on an open door.
BrightNoon
 
  1  
Reply Thu 2 Jul, 2009 12:09 am
@RDRDRD1,
Why don't you show me some evidence that any of these signatories were 'gamed,' or present some of the critiques, or provide links to them? Is there such evidence? Are there such critiques? The only evidence for enthropogenic global warming that I've ever seen, as opposed to statements in the media which claim without references that there is evidence, consists of computer models, which thus far have spectacularly failed to accurately model reality as we observe it at present. Call me crazy, but I'll take actual, empiric observation over theoretical modelling anyday. Moreover, a computer model is only as good as the assumptions built into it; as they say in the computer industry, garbage in, garbage out.

---------- Post added at 02:18 AM ---------- Previous post was at 02:09 AM ----------

Theaetetus;74212 wrote:
The problem though, is that when society produces these "greenhouse gases," they often produce many other toxic by-products that do harm the environment and doing irreparable damage to ecosystems. For example one major pollutant given off from burning coal is sulfur dioxide.


That's very true. However, there are ways to reduce emissions of truly toxic substances without abandoning fossil fuels. Exceptng nuclear power, which is a perfectly safe and incredibly efficient source, there is nothing which can replace fossil fuels any time soon. Frankly, I don't think its possible for humanity to bridge the gap, so to speak; i.e. to replace fossil fuels before before an energy deficit arises and reduces societal complexity. Of course, abandoning fossil fuels prematurely because of imaginary threats makes the problem so much worse.

I'd recomend watching Chris Martenson's 'Crash Course,' parts 17a, 17b, 17c, and 18.

Chris Martenson | chapters - The Crash Course - chapters, Crash Course, Economy, Energy, environment, Peak Oil, videos
0 Replies
 
Theaetetus
 
  1  
Reply Thu 2 Jul, 2009 12:25 am
@Theaetetus,
You are focusing solely what comes out of the media. The media is often run by corporate interests (e.g. G.E.'s hands in NBC). They do not report on most environmental news because they do not employ employees that are capable of doing true scientific reporting. They are not running around trying to get interviews with oceanic and atmospheric scientist that have been studying this phenomenon for decades. Instead, they are receiving much of their information from press reports sent out by government agencies, politicians, and corporations. As a former editor-in-chief of a newspaper, I know how much trash fills press releases, and how much editors and writers rely on that bogus, self-serving information.

I just did a quick seach on Google Scholar for that paper that had the link posted, "Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide," and it showed a measly 39 citations. If it actually had as much academic backing as that list of signers would suggest, it would have a stirred a far more rigorous debate. And the ones that do mention it, only do so in passing, rather that offering rigorous rebuttals or an expansion of the ideas presented.
BrightNoon
 
  1  
Reply Thu 2 Jul, 2009 12:34 am
@Theaetetus,
I'd imagine there aren't many citations because the arguments are extremely simple. The main argument is simply that, according to the record as obtained from tree ring and ice core data, along with surface temperature readings, increases in CO2 have historically followed temperature increase, and thus could not have caused those inceases. What else can one say? It's pretty basic logic; causes precede their efffects; ergo, rising CO2 cannot be the cause of rising temperature. The other main argument is that, while there is not a good correspondence between industrialization and temperature rise according to the data, there is a strong correspondence between solar activity and temperature. Again, this is pretty simple. Correllation is not causation, but lack of correllation is obviously NOT causation. I don't think either of us are really qualified to examine this in detail, but from my perspective, these basic facts, drawn from peer reviewed studies, are very convincing. Moreover, until someone proves that these people were conned, a huge number of very highly educated people agree.

EDIT: I misunderstood you. I thought you meant that the paper made only 39 citations of other papers. It made 132. You meant that it was cited only 39 times? Well, what can I say. I don't know if that's significant or not.
0 Replies
 
Theaetetus
 
  1  
Reply Thu 2 Jul, 2009 01:49 am
@Theaetetus,
The paper has been sited in other works only 39 times. Sure the paper may cite over 100 other sources, but it is easy to cherry pick statistics--I know, I have done it before on papers in the past. The fact that it is only cited in 39 other works, and none of them from what I could tell, were major scientific papers. If something vehemently opposes what much of the scientific community has churned out for 30 years, many more people in academia would address the paper.

With that said, I would spend more time to read the paper if I thought it was worthy of my time. It is printed in the Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons. That raises flags. The paper itself is not really scientific. It may use analysis, but it does not seriously address experimentation, because all the paper represents is a literature review, which are very easy to skew by picking and choosing data to make the case stronger.

But don't you think that this paper would receive more attention if that many people in the scientific community had signed the petition?
0 Replies
 
RDRDRD1
 
  1  
Reply Thu 2 Jul, 2009 07:41 am
@Theaetetus,
Brightnoon, why is it you claim not to be able to find what's right before your eyes? Among other sites, including your own government's, you can readily find the IPCC and you can then read their consensus reports. It's a bit disingenuous for you to demand that others post hundreds of pages of corroborative information when you're patently unwilling to look at what's readily at hand anyway. No one is going to persuade you that the earth is not flat.
0 Replies
 
Aedes
 
  1  
Reply Thu 2 Jul, 2009 07:48 am
@BrightNoon,
BrightNoon;74210 wrote:
I am not a climate scientist, but the arguments and facts that I presented were taken from a report created by climate and other scientists. Below is the report. Rather than summarize again some of the material, I'll suggest that you look it over yourselves.
And I'd suggest you take a few minutes to see how many of those people are actual climate scientists. Very very few of them. :sarcastic:

Here's a tally so far, going in order:
Earl M. Aagaard -- no publications
Charles W. Aami -- no publications
Roger L. Aamodt -- 49 total publications, mostly about zinc metabolism
Wilbur A. Aanes -- 16 articles about injuries in horses
M. Robert Aaron -- 17 publications about digital/analog signal conversion
Ralph F. Abate -- no publications
Hamed K. Abbas -- 63 publications about toxin biosynthesis in fungi

Shall I go on? That's a daunting tally of expertise on climate change...
0 Replies
 
kennethamy
 
  1  
Reply Thu 2 Jul, 2009 08:14 am
@Elmud,
Elmud;73592 wrote:
I wonder if Henry Fords invention would fall into Einsteins quote, "It is appallingly clear that our technology has surpassed our humanity". We have transportation, and that is a good thing, but, very expensive.


Yes, let us return to the pollution in the city streets caused by horse transportation. That pollution of horse feces all over the place, was many times worse than carbon, and now, with the many-fold increase in population, and the need for more transportation, would be overwhelming, and impossible to tolerate. So we would not have efficient transportation, and also, far worse pollution. Good thinking!
RDRDRD1
 
  1  
Reply Thu 2 Jul, 2009 09:44 am
@Theaetetus,
Assuming we're going to continue this discussion without allowing Brightnoon to derail it (we accept you don't believe it but we're not here to prove anything to you), I thought I'd bring up the subject of the emerging economies and the Third World and how they intend to argue environmental ethics and justice.

An article in today's Times of India reveals how they're going to focus on "carbon space" in conjunction with presenting the West's profligate energy use as a plague of gluttony and greed for which they, and the Third Worlders, are paying the price. It's a clever but apparently effective tactic to draw the Third World into their fold, leaving the West isolated. Here is the thrust of the argument:

"If the current fleet of 25-40 million gas-guzzling sport utility vehicles (SUVs) in the United States were to shift to more fuel-efficient cars such as those available in Europe, more than 1.6 billion people in the world currently living in the dark can be provided electrification without any increase in the levels of greenhouse gases that lead to climate change.

"Phasing out the oversized, power-packed SUVs, considered the hallmark of a Midwestern dream in the US, would reduce global emissions by a whopping 36 million tonnes of carbon dioxide annually, according to the World Bank's yet-to-be-released World Development Report 2009.


"This is only one example of the "duplicity" of the industrialized nations that the WDR highlights to prove that "carbon space" is inequitably powering the luxurious lifestyles of the rich at the cost of the poorer nations. Carbon space is an individual's or a country's share of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere.

"The report, the draft overview of which was seen by TOI, now points out that the 1 billion people living in the high income countries are using 63% more carbon space than is their fair share on a per capita basis if one were to analyze the emissions since 1990.

"India, for decades, has demanded at the UN climate negotiations that it must be given a greater 'carbon space' in the atmosphere to allow its 600 million poor access to electricity. The industrialized nations have argued that if India grows and powers its poor, the already limited space left in the atmosphere to spew out GHG gases would lead to irreversible and dangerous climate change."

What India is planning is to take our cherished Western ideals of fairness and equity and club us over the head with them. Instead of vague promises of such and such a percentage reduction in emissions by this date or that, the Indians are shifting the focus to "carbon space."

The Indians are relying on two studies released this year that have identified the amount of carbon dioxide the earth's atmosphere can handle before triggering unacceptable warming (the 2 degree target). They looked at pre-industrial levels, how much has been added since and then worked out a remarkably specific estimate for the permissible balance.

Once you've reached that point the only question remains who gets how much of the remaining capacity? The Indians want to fix quotas. And they want it done on a per capita basis. The snag is that would require the West to implement an immediate, 63% carbon emissions reduction.

The worst part of India's argument (for us anyway) is that it doesn't seek redress for emissions imbalances of the past. They can point to our greed and gluttony instead to reinforce their argument for a per capita allocation of the remaining "carbon space."

Here's the rub. I know, you know and the Indians along with everyone else knows that the West isn't willing to shut down tomorrow to achieve the identified 63% emissions cuts. So, how do we respond?

Can we ethically claim that we need those SUVs to fetch our groceries? Can we ignore them and maintain that we must continue to have a superior claim to the remaining carbon space? Do we fall back on might is right?

It strikes me that there are a few arguments available to the West. One is to tell India (and China) that it bears responsibility for the inevitable effects of its 1.3-billiion strong overpopulation. Another might be to argue that, if they won't see it our way on overpopulation, quotas ought to be allocated taking into account several factors, including each nation's landmass. Living in an enormously underpopulated country like Canada, that last one has an obvious appeal.

But in all seriousness, this climate change debate may force us to devise a new philosophy for how we all shall interact in the future.

---------- Post added at 09:19 AM ---------- Previous post was at 08:44 AM ----------

Kennethamy, nobody is talking about a return to horsedrawn anything. You're setting up straw men to show you can knock them down. Anything serious to say?
 

Related Topics

 
  1. Forums
  2. » Global Warming, Pollution, and Politics
Copyright © 2019 MadLab, LLC :: Terms of Service :: Privacy Policy :: Page generated in 0.03 seconds on 06/20/2019 at 05:12:20