I'm not going to rise to the bait of those "examples" of yours, which i find too contrived, and too coy.
However . . .
You have the right to say things that I consider offensive or even outrageous.
Absolutely--anyone has such a right, so long as it does not incite to criminality.
I have the right to be offended or outraged.
Absolutely--anyone has such a right, so long as they do not stoop to or incite to criminality.
In many situations, it may be a good idea to refrain from using terms that others find offensive even when you don't understand the offense. This is a good way to get along with others.
This seems rather nonsensical to me. If you don't understand that what you say is offensive, what would motivate you to refrain from saying it? Being careful not to offend others with one's speech might be a good idea in many cases, but certainly would suck as an absolute rule. For example, complaining about racism would be a good idea, even if others don't want to hear it, and even if it will make you unpopular.
There are some times when offending people is a fine idea. There are some people I simply don't care about getting along with. There are some issues that I find more important than getting along.
I've already answered this, except for the second sentence. If one does not care to get along with some other people, and their speech or behavior is not criminal and does not incite to criminality, i see no reason why they should make any effort to avoid offending said other people. They need to be perpared to deal with the consequences, of course.
There are different environments. Legal protections to stop offensive behavior at work or high school are essential. Standards at college should be much looser. There should be very few protections in political or public speech (only for the obvious threats, fire in a theater, etc.)
You're taking the scattergun approach here. This is actually a series of distinct statements which would need to be addressed individually, perhaps, for most respondents. For my part, however, i've already answered it by having pointed out that people have a right to express themselves on any subject in any manner they choose so long as they do not incite to criminality.
Both conservatives and liberals have notions of political rectitude--no conservative dare support gun control, for example. Whether or not you find the term to be valuable, it remains descriptive of self-imposed limits on speech which almost everyone exhibits, whether they acknowledge it or not, whether they even know it or not.