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# New perspectives in physics

Fri 19 Aug, 2022 05:41 am
New perspectives in physics

1. STM

Let us accept an existence of homogenous formation space-time-matter, shortly STM.
STM = S + TM = T + SM = M + ST [spacetimematter = space + timematter = time + spacematter = matter + spacetime]
M + ST is concerning macroscopic conditions. If - M, + ST matter loses then spacetime profit, it is distance - perspective, objects decrease with distance - ordinary contraction. If + M, - ST matter profit then spacetime loses, it is bringing closer - perspective, objects increase in progress of bringing closer - ordinary dilatation.
S + TM is concerning microscopic conditions. If - TM, + S timematter loses then space profit, it leads to waves and fields. If - S, + TM space loses then timematter profit, it leads to particles.

2. Quantum gravity

How to build new theory I have shown in my article from March of 2006:
"we must understand that modern quantum mechanics (which was started with idea of quantums in 1900 and 1905 year) is in its fundaments, only mechanics of particles and electromagnetism. Two main points of starting of quantum mechanics, solution of problem of thermal radiance, and next solution of photoelectric phenomenon, both refer only to problem of particles of electromagnetic waves.
If we are trying to express gravitation correctly we must go out beyond limitations that are accepting at the ground of electromagnetism (which were created old theory of quantums and its descendant, quantum mechanics, in one hand, it was a Planck's constant value, and first theory of relativity of Einstein, at the other hand, it was constant value of speed of light) and designate new field for phenomenon of gravitation. We must use different measurement for gravitation and different measurement for electromagnetism." Also in this article I have proposed new borders for gravitation.
We can say that there is, very much smaller than length of Planck, size right for quantums of gravitation, it is a new base very small size value is about 10^-65 m.

3. Galactical model of subquark particles

Electrons, quarks and gluons possess internal structure, consist of quadrillion of particles of size about 10^-35 m [they correspond with photons], these then from quadrillion of particles about 10^-50 m, these then from quadrillion of particles about 10^-65 m [they correspond with gravitons]. To confirm legitimacy of assuming of hypothesis of internal structure of smallest from hitherto known structural subatomic particles as electrons, quarks and gluons it can be invoked the theory of science created by A.Comte (see after text Comte's Theory of Science).

diagram. Galatical model

Every following field uses in a large extent from previous, sociology from biology - theory of evolution, biology from chemistry - an example biochemistry, chemistry from physics - even if structure of atom and periodic table, physics from astronomy. Invoking astronomy it can be in physics reach eg. conception of existence of atoms and their internal structure - stars, planets, planetary system. It can be also reach models applied in conception of subquark particles and QG. It is galactical, cosmical and supercosmical model. Mystery of dark matter can be explained in this way that preonical particles possess mass.

4.

Mass of rubbish fills present physics for example - cosmical branes giving beginning to big bang and creating other universes, multidimensionality, strings existing in 10 dimensions, parallel universes, spatiotemporal tunnels, microblisters, hyperspace and so on.
And several words about atomistic paradigm of Natural Sciences. Against claims of such philosophers as Popper atomism does not descend from metaphysical speculations. Democritus took over this view from Hindus during his travels in the east, conception of atoms existed there at the very latest about VIII century BC, and was based on paranormal perceptions of yogis - a source could be only paranormal activity, but for sure not philosophical speculation, in Europe spherical atoms appeared not before XIX century AD.

(2011)

5. Solution of the problem of Wave-particle duality

One of the biggest puzzles is the problem of how light in classical physics can be a wave, while in quantum physics it is in the form of photons or particles. The light ray is a wave but the energy transmits matter in the form of photons. Thus, it can also be assumed that any other particle, for example a moving electron, can be a wave of matter. The existence of matter waves was confirmed in 1927. Also in 1927 the uncertainty principle was formulated, stating that it is impossible to measure the position and momentum of a particle with unlimited accuracy. The issues considered are related to the problem of wave-particle duality.
Wave-particle duality, the property of matter, for example electrons, in that in some conditions the wave character is manifested, and in others corpuscular character. Wave properties are revealed by diffraction and interference phenomena. Classical physics could not explain, for example, the photoelectric phenomenon, the adoption of the concept of a discrete radiation structure enabled solving this difficulty. Electron diffraction has shown that molecules have wave properties in addition to their corpuscular properties. Current theory assumes that all molecules have both wave and corpuscular character. This fact has been checked not only for elementary particles but also for composite particles such as atoms. Recognition of the dual nature of matter is the basis of modern physics.
So far, considered duality remains a mystery, this is my explanation of this enigma. The problem of wave-particle duality is in fact a problem of trichotomy, where the third state are fields. At the explanation of this problem it is possible to invoke phenomenon of three states of concentration of the matter, the solid state, liquid and gas. This phenomenon determines the model for the problem of trichotomy in the microworld. Three states of concentration of the matter it is possible to implement by the fourth state which is the vacuum. Contractual condensation of the vacuum gives the highest state of concentration, gas. The further condensation gives the liquid state of concentration, still further the solid state of concentration. So the vacuum condenses into fields, fields condense into waves, waves condense into particles. The formation of particles directly from the fields corresponds to gas resublimation. These considerations make for the conclusion that the base for three states of the microworld is the vacuum. So particles, waves and fields are just a condensed form of vacuum (space). On the ground of STM (see paragraph 1) we can reach explanation where particles, waves and fields can be brought to the space.

6. Theory of everything (TOE)

Two theories which modern physics is based on is the general theory of relativity (GR) and quantum mechanics (QM). GR refers to great phenomena in cosmic scales, where gravity works. QM refers to phenomena in microscale, relates to particles and interactions. Years of research have shown that these two theories work well in experiments. On the other hand they are incompatible with each other. This inconsistency is revealed in very much small scale, Planck scale. To solve it, one should discover the theory showing a deeper reality, it will be the TOE, explaining all phenomena in the universe.
Among ancient theories, apart from atomism, we can find another one equally useful theory created by the Greek sophist Gorgias who lived in the 5th century BC, which turns out to be helpful in searching for the TOE. In the work On Non-Existence we can find the first thesis of this theory: nothing exists. Well, the ultimate basis for everything is nothingness.

7.

Regarding paragraph 3, a more careful analysis of the galactical model leads to the conclusion that there are more types of particles of the right type. Types of stars, by supergiants, giants, dwarfs, all the way to the black star (black hole, see paragraph 11) would correspond to the types of these particles. Cosmical model analysis leads to similar conclusions, where the types of particles would correspond to the appropriate types of galaxies. At the end, the analysis of the supercosmical model leads to similar conclusions.
In addition, it can be assumed that there are types of photon-like particles and corresponding waves with significantly higher speeds than the speed of light (compare paragraph 2). So there are non-electromagnetic waves far above the speed of light.

8.

Popper's Falsificationism seems to be wrong because the theory tests always strive to confirm it or confirmation and not refute it. So this concept is not unreliable with the actual way science is practiced. From the point of view of scientific research, striving to refute the theory seems to be a kind of nonsense and is something illogical.
For example, General Relativity found confirmation in the Mercury orbit anomalies that Newton's theory could not explain. This confirmation is treated as proof of the validity of the theory. Of course, you can give more examples.
Knowledge is inherently uncertain, as the ancient skeptics have already demonstrated. Therefore, science must use invalid inferences. Induction inferences is one of the basic types of inference of empirical sciences. These are uncertain inferences. Deductive inferences belong to the field of formal sciences such as mathematics and logic. On the basis of empirical science, the use of deduction is not meaningfully possible. By the way, ancient skeptics have also undermined the credibility of the deduction.

(2019)

9.

Regarding paragraph 1, thus, objects that move away decrease and objects that move closer enlarge. This can be called an ordinary contraction and dilatation, respectively. This ordinary phenomenon confirms the validity of the assumption about the unity of space and matter, and therefore also due to the concept of space-time on the unity of time, space and matter.

10.

Regarding paragraph 5, we are dealing here with densification by jumps, where we obtain successive states from vacuum to atomic matter. Of course, in modeling these processes, one can use the sigmoidal model, which I have used extensively in other studies. The sigmoidal model records these jumps. I would like to add that these jumps are quantitative and not qualitative, according to the principle that any qualitative change is in fact a quantitative change.

(2020)

11. Black holes, Big-Bang

On the basis of my Quantum Gravity, we can obtain a partial explanation of the mystery of black holes. The use of quantization produces specific results. Alleged black hole is a kind of black star - with size about a star for our galaxy - consisting from condensate of small particles corresponding with gravitons. Black because does not let go photons. More suitable name than black hole is for this object name black star. So called event horizon is identical with its surface, so called Schwarzschild radius relates to its real radius. Inside the black star in the center of our galaxy a tunnel opens which leads in to the core of a distant galaxy.
I should add also that primeval object which was a beginning of Universe had size not about 1 cm or less but several light yeras - about size of the distance to one of the nearby stars, and we should call it primeval black hyperstar. A model of primeval explosion can be an explosion of supernova. An instability of hyperstar can be caused for exceeding of a certain threshold, a certain limit of mass/size analogous to Chandrasekhar limit for supernovas.
More strictly speaking, the primal object that started our cosmos was at the center of a small galaxy in another cosmos. A tunnel from another cosmos it has a small end of 1 cm, after primeval black hyperstar exceeded the critical mass this end began to widen rapidly. The growth of primeval black hyperstar lasted approximately 50 billion years. If the initial object has a quite big size, there wasn't age of inflation thus whole this conception must fall down.

12.

Antigravitons or antiparticles of gravitons can be used in the construction of an antigravity drive because they probably generate antigravity. The propulsion of the antigravity vehicle will be a miniature anti black star, built from antiparticles to particles at the level of gravitons, that is, on the order of the magnitude of 10^-65 m. So, visions of flying cars from science fiction movies can be put into practice.

(2021)

Gregory Podgorniak, Poland
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pragmatical45

0
Sun 11 Sep, 2022 08:24 am
meanwhile paragraph 6 of the text has changed to this form:
"6. Theory of everything (TOE)

Two theories which modern physics is based on is the general theory of relativity (GR) and quantum mechanics (QM). GR refers to great phenomena in cosmic scales, where gravity works. QM refers to phenomena in microscale, relates to particles and interactions. Years of research have shown that these two theories work well in experiments. On the other hand they are incompatible with each other. This inconsistency is revealed in very much small scale, Planck scale. To solve it, one should discover the theory showing a deeper reality, it will be the TOE, explaining all phenomena in the universe.
Why does the universe came into being so that the complexity of material structures, the emergence of life and later intelligence can arise? For example, if the nuclear forces were a bit weaker, only hydrogen would exist, there would be no other elements, life or intelligence. On the other hand, if the nuclear interactions were somewhat stronger, even hydrogen could not exist. It seems that the universe was created deliberately.
Well, in my opinion there is a God, the creator of the universe. He created a rectangular microgrid of space, 10^-80 m in size, and with it all matter. This is similar to earlier computer simulations, where the simulation grids gave images of three-dimensional objects. This microgrid resembles a mental simulation, but it is not. The basis for matter is rectangular microgrid of space sizes in the order of 10^-80 m."
Brandon9000

1
Sun 18 Sep, 2022 01:45 am
"So far, considered duality remains a mystery."

Physicists have known the explanation for nearly a century. I was taught this in elementary physics classes as a freshman in college. We can compare elementary particles to macroscopic phenomena like waves and billiard balls if we like, but elementary particles really aren't either. The duality arises from the fact that the comparisons were imperfect to begin with.
0 Replies

pragmatical45

0
Wed 2 Nov, 2022 04:42 am
mentioned in first post Comte's theory of science:

According to him whole of sciences consists of theoretical and applied knowledge. Theoretical knowledge divide on general fields as physics or biology, which are an object of his research and detailed such as botany, zoology or mineralogy. Main fields mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology and sociology it is possible to order according to decrescent range of research and complicatedness of theoretical tools what is connected with growing complexity of investigated phenomenones. Following sciences are based on previous, for example to methodically capture chemistry, we must imply acquaintance of physics, because all chemical phenomena are more complicated than physical phenomena, are also from them dependent and themselves do not have on them an influence. Similarly sciences classified as earlier, are older and more advanced from these which are presented as later.
0 Replies

pragmatical45

0
Wed 1 Feb, 2023 02:07 am
@pragmatical45,
about the author, My name is Gregory Podgorniak (brn. 01.1977, Szczecinek, West Pomerania, Poland). I am working on field of natural as well as social sciences. During philosophical studies at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan (1996-1999) I was actively act in student scientific organisation, got a scientific scholarship, and one from my articles titled Circulus vitiosus and fourfold petitio principii in the system of Descartes was published in Humanistic Drafts of Publishing House of Humaniora Foundation in Poznan, no. 6, 1998. Unfortunately certain fate events made impossible to me continuing studies to master's and later doctor's degree. Thence I was forced to be content only with a title of bachelor.
Thanks to deep and penetrating researchings I was able to establish indisputably some number of my past incarnations reaching of ancient period, these data are certain, these incarnations are: Auguste Comte (1798-1857) French philosopher and sociologist, Edme Mariotte (1620-1684) French physicist and meteorologist, Bodhidharma (5th or 6th century) buddhist patriarch, Aenesidemus (1 st century BC) Greek sceptical philosopher, Arcesilaus (315-241 BC) Greek sceptical philosopher, Gorgias (485-380 BC) Greek sophist.

email contact: [email protected]
0 Replies

pragmatical45

1
Wed 1 Feb, 2023 02:11 am
@pragmatical45,
the change from the second post can be considered invalid, because I reverted to the version from the first post
0 Replies

pragmatical45

1
Sun 26 Feb, 2023 10:36 am
@pragmatical45,
I added this text to paragraph 6:
"At a lower level of the TOE, it will be a concept where space creates matter. And more specifically the square microgrid of space, 10^-80 m in size creates matter. This is similar to earlier computer simulations, where the simulation grids gave images of three-dimensional objects. This microgrid is like a mental simulation, and to some extent it is. The basis for matter is square microgrid of space sizes in the order of 10^-80 m."
0 Replies

pragmatical45

1
Fri 3 Mar, 2023 02:53 am
@pragmatical45,
In the new version of the text, I abandoned the concept of a black star and a black hyperstar in favor of a black hole and a primordial particle, i.e. paragraph 11 has been deleted
0 Replies

pragmatical45

1
Sun 9 Apr, 2023 11:15 am
@pragmatical45,
new version of paragraph 11:

"11. Black holes, Big-Bang

On the basis of the supercosmical model of subquark particles, we can obtain an explanation of the mystery of black holes. The use of quantization produces specific results. Inside the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy is an singularity on the order of 50 centimeters in size.
I should add also that primeval sinagularity which was a beginning of Universe had size not a very small particle but a size of the order of 1 centimeter. Thus there was no period of inflation and this concept must fail."
0 Replies

pragmatical45

1
Sun 14 May, 2023 09:07 am
@pragmatical45,
In new version of New horizons in physics I added new version of paragraph 3:
"3. Galactical model of subquark particles

Electrons, quarks and gluons possess internal structure, consist of quadrillion of particles of size about 10^-35 m [they correspond with photons], these then from quadrillion of particles about 10^-50 m [they correspond with gravitons]. To confirm legitimacy of assuming of hypothesis of internal structure of smallest from hitherto known structural subatomic particles as electrons, quarks and gluons it can be invoked the theory of science created by A.Comte (see after text Comte's Theory of Science).

diagram. Galatical model

Every following field uses in a large extent from previous, sociology from biology - theory of evolution, biology from chemistry - an example biochemistry, chemistry from physics - even if structure of atom and periodic table, physics from astronomy. Invoking astronomy it can be in physics reach eg. conception of existence of atoms and their internal structure - stars, planets, planetary system. It can be also reach models applied in conception of subquark particles and QG. It is galactical, and cosmical model. Mystery of dark matter can be explained in this way that preonical particles possess mass (the above part of this paragraph is from year 2014).
A more careful analysis of the galactical model leads to the conclusion that there are more types of particles of the right type. Types of stars, by supergiants, giants, dwarfs, all the way to the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy would correspond to the types of these particles. Cosmical model analysis leads to similar conclusions, where the types of particles would correspond to the appropriate types of galaxies.
In addition, it can be assumed that there are types of photon-like particles and corresponding waves with significantly higher speeds than the speed of light. So there are non-electromagnetic waves far above the speed of light (the above part of this paragraph is from year 2019).
Main particle from the galactical model will correspond to a supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy. Perhaps quarks are made of such particles (the above part of this paragraph is from year 2023).
"
0 Replies

pragmatical45

1
Sat 20 May, 2023 01:33 am
@pragmatical45,
In new version of New horizons in physics I added a part to paragraph 2:

"In the first generation of particles (see paragraph 3), space changes state and creates matter. These particles are actually made of space, only space in an altered state. Gravitons are made of space. This space in the case of gravitons is in an altered state (this also applies to particles at a level close to the level of gravitons that build matter). Gravitons are bulges of space. Due to the curvature of space, they acquire an attractive charge. These are the basics of Quantum Gravity."
0 Replies

pragmatical45

1
Sun 18 Jun, 2023 03:09 am
@pragmatical45,
The post about changing paragraph 3 in New horizons in physics can be considered outdated because I reverted to the version from the first post.
0 Replies

pragmatical45

1
Thu 3 Aug, 2023 01:06 am
@pragmatical45,
new version of paragraph 6:

Theory of everything (TOE)

Two theories which modern physics is based on is the general theory of relativity (GR) and quantum mechanics (QM). GR refers to great phenomena in cosmic scales, where gravity works. QM refers to phenomena in microscale, relates to particles and interactions. Years of research have shown that these two theories work well in experiments. On the other hand they are incompatible with each other. This inconsistency is revealed in very much small scale, Planck scale. To solve it, one should discover the theory showing a deeper reality, it will be the TOE, explaining all phenomena in the universe.
The TOE, it will be a concept where space creates matter. And more specifically the square microgrid of space, 10^-80 m in size creates matter by twisting (more precisely, it creates the smallest particles by twisting, and these combine into larger particles). This is similar to earlier computer simulations, where the simulation grids gave images of three-dimensional objects. This microgrid is like a mental simulation, and in half it is. The basis for matter is square microgrid of space sizes in the order of 10^-80 m. So matter is made of space. Matter is space.
The concept of a square microgrid of space is probably compatible with the holographic concept, as this microgrid probably exists in two dimensions. Gravity would be the concave bending of this microgrid (see diagram 2), under the influence of its accumulation in the form of matter which it creates by twisting. Gravitons are formed directly from this microgrid, and through its concavity they acquire an attractive charge. Gravitons are bulges of the considered microgrid. Other particles from a level close to the level of gravitons hang from the considered microgrid as if on a string.

diagram. Represents gravity in two-dimensional space. The picture is closer to the truth than you might think. Gravity is actually the concavity of a two-dimensional square microgrid, of course this microgrid is much finer than shown in the image above.
0 Replies

pragmatical45

1
Tue 29 Aug, 2023 07:14 am
@pragmatical45,
in new version of paragraph 6 I added a part:

The Theory of Everything I have presented is different from the theory of gravity itself and is more fundamental than the theory of gravity.
In my early twenties, I observed a square microgrid of space through quasiparanormal perception (observing animate matter at the lowest possible level). I encourage readers to observe this structure for themselves.
0 Replies

pragmatical45

1
Thu 7 Sep, 2023 01:28 am
@pragmatical45,
New version of paragraph 5 in New horizons in physics:

5. Solution of the problem of Wave-particle duality

One of the biggest puzzles is the problem of how light in classical physics can be a wave, while in quantum physics it is in the form of photons or particles. The light ray is a wave but the energy transmits matter in the form of photons. Thus, it can also be assumed that any other particle, for example a moving electron, can be a wave of matter. The existence of matter waves was confirmed in 1927. Also in 1927 the uncertainty principle was formulated, stating that it is impossible to measure the position and momentum of a particle with unlimited accuracy. The issues considered are related to the problem of wave-particle duality.
Wave-particle duality, the property of matter, for example electrons, in that in some conditions the wave character is manifested, and in others corpuscular character. Wave properties are revealed by diffraction and interference phenomena. Classical physics could not explain, for example, the photoelectric phenomenon, the adoption of the concept of a discrete radiation structure enabled solving this difficulty. Electron diffraction has shown that molecules have wave properties in addition to their corpuscular properties. Current theory assumes that all molecules have both wave and corpuscular character. This fact has been checked not only for elementary particles but also for composite particles such as atoms. Recognition of the dual nature of matter is the basis of modern physics.
So far, considered duality remains a mystery, this is my explanation of this enigma. The problem of wave-particle duality is in fact a problem of trichotomy, where the third state are fields. At the explanation of this problem it is possible to invoke phenomenon of three states of concentration of the matter, the solid state, liquid and gas. This phenomenon determines the model for the problem of trichotomy in the microworld. Three states of concentration of the matter it is possible to implement by the fourth state which is the vacuum. These considerations make for the conclusion that the base for three states of the microworld is the vacuum. So particles, waves and fields are just a condensed form of vacuum (space). On the ground of STM (see paragraph 1) we can reach explanation where particles, waves and fields can be brought to the space.
The vacuum or space itself is in three states, the firstfruits of particle, wave and field matter. First we have the firstfruits of particle matter, the square microgrid, which is what the particles are made of. Later we have the firstfruits of wave matter - asymmetric microgrid, waves are made of it. Then the firstfruits of field matter, straight parallel lines, from which the fields are composed. It can be said that these firstfruits of fields are themselves a field, and the vacuum (space) itself is a field.
So it appears that matter is simply of a threefold nature, because the space from which it arises has a threefold nature. There are three microgrids, a particle microgrid, a wave microgrid, and a field microgrid.
0 Replies

pragmatical45

1
Sun 10 Sep, 2023 09:02 pm
@pragmatical45,
Now I have returned to the old title of the text: New perspectives in physics
0 Replies

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