What is the take-home lesson here? Be nice to dogs, and naturally, they will be nice to you. More broadly, animal duplicity may be carried out with awareness and sometimes even with emotional gus- to. For this reason, we may see something of our- selves in the dogs or in cuttlefish who give o false signals in mating and birds who mislead to steal food. And yet across species—including those animals who deceive in the absence of premeditated intent—the same individuals may act honestly in some cir- cumstances and connivingly in others. That Janus- headed nature may sound familiar to us, too.