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Did Australopithecus africanus evolve into Homo habilis?

 
 
Jenb914
 
Reply Fri 21 Oct, 2016 12:02 pm
I'm wondering if anyone can explain the process by which Australopithecus Africanus evolved into Homo habilis and then from there into Homo erectus. Secondary to that, why do evolutionary biologists think these protohumans became extinct?
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Type: Question • Score: 9 • Views: 916 • Replies: 22

 
Sturgis
 
  3  
Reply Fri 21 Oct, 2016 12:51 pm
Google.com can be your friend. The information you're inquiring on is easy to locate by entering it into the little box on their page.

If you need further, more detailed information on your subject matter, try out www.scienceforums.net. Scrolleth down a bit and there is a section for education and within that area, Homework Help. Drift down a little more and there's a section dedicated to the sciences.

I wish you the best.
farmerman
 
  3  
Reply Fri 21 Oct, 2016 03:09 pm
@Sturgis,
or go visit the sept /oct issue of earthmagazine dot org. It has areally good article about the redefinition of Homo (as opposed to the other hominid genera). There is even a greqt phylogenetic "tree" that should clear it all up for you.
0 Replies
 
Krumple
 
  1  
Reply Fri 21 Oct, 2016 03:20 pm
@Jenb914,
Jenb914 wrote:

I'm wondering if anyone can explain the process by which Australopithecus Africanus evolved into Homo habilis and then from there into Homo erectus. Secondary to that, why do evolutionary biologists think these protohumans became extinct?


There was interbreeding between the groups. It wasnt pure seperation of genetic offshoots. Also each advancement in mental ability opened the door for divercity when it came to obtaining food. Environmental changes can drastically impact a species who cant overcome new arising problems. I bet it was a combination of several events that led to extinction.
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rosborne979
 
  3  
Reply Fri 21 Oct, 2016 05:19 pm
@Jenb914,
Jenb914 wrote:
why do evolutionary biologists think these protohumans became extinct?

It's important to remember that as any species evolves it is the members of its own species which are its greatest competitors. Eventually the ones that survive better simply out-reproduce the others and the gene pool changes.
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Setanta
 
  4  
Reply Fri 21 Oct, 2016 06:54 pm
Additionally, life was very precarious for the early proto-humans and humans. Homo itself was in danger of extinction on more than one occasion. All modern humans are descended from a single woman, and a single man (at two different points), which means that all other lines died out. Harvard geneticists came to the conclusion that 30,000 years ago, all the early modern humans on the entire planet did not amount to more than 10,000 individuals, and perhaps even as few as one thousand.
farmerman
 
  3  
Reply Fri 21 Oct, 2016 07:41 pm
@Setanta,
this question is more a discussion of the concept of what defines a "genus". Australopithcus had, s fr s we know now, 5 species , separated .through time.
Bernard Wood said that a
Quote:
"genus is like a make of car".
All Toyotas are more closely related to each other than to any other make of car, and theyre all derived from the original Toyota,which was made in the 1930's". He adds "A grouping make up of all four wheel drive cars made by Toyota would make a sensible genus"
Wood says/"But a grouping of four wheel drive cars made by different companies would not qualify, even if they look sorta alike and drive alike, since they dont have the same common ancestor"
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Setanta
 
  0  
Reply Fri 21 Oct, 2016 07:54 pm
So for that you voted down my post? Thanks, Perfesser, but I'm not under your tutelage in the matter of what I wish to comment on.
farmerman
 
  5  
Reply Fri 21 Oct, 2016 08:08 pm
@Setanta,
I didnt vote anything down> I have NEVER voted anything down(that I cn recall). Ita a stupid rather puerile system that merely makes childish vindictive people feel good about themselves.
We argue more substantive things than to fall back on some **** that uses thumbs to pile on. I think I have more integrity to yell at you strait on than hide behind the digit. (Anyway, were I to digit salute someone, I would NOT use a thumb)

Anyway, my post was more a discussion about where in line "handy man" fits on a limb along side the tree limb that contains the "African Southern Ape"

The first in line of the Australopithecenes has always been A. anamensis. (Thatd be the 1930ish Toyota). A. africanus does not appear until about 2 million yers later
farmerman
 
  2  
Reply Fri 21 Oct, 2016 08:12 pm
@farmerman,
PS, I just now voted you back up, I think that shows that it wasnt me who voted you down. (Im not even sure how the dam thumb thing works)
0 Replies
 
edgarblythe
 
  2  
Reply Fri 21 Oct, 2016 09:18 pm
I voted you both up. Cool Cool
Setanta
 
  3  
Reply Fri 21 Oct, 2016 09:33 pm
The OP asks:

Quote:
Secondary to that, why do evolutionary biologists think these protohumans became extinct?


So i was pointing out how precarious a hold on survival early hominid species had. I don't believe evolutionary biologists have anything more than conjecture as an answer to that question.
Blickers
 
  1  
Reply Fri 21 Oct, 2016 09:57 pm
@edgarblythe,
Set just got voted down again. I just +1 ed him to (at least temporarily) undo the downvoter.
edgarblythe
 
  3  
Reply Fri 21 Oct, 2016 10:05 pm
@Blickers,
Some asses are dedicated to downvoting, thinking to insult the target. In fact they reveal themselves as jerks.
0 Replies
 
farmerman
 
  4  
Reply Sat 22 Oct, 2016 01:31 am
@Setanta,
as far as Australopithecines go, quoting Dave Raup,
"They were a bad idea to begin with, and they went on entirely too long "

Thats as good a reason as any.
farmerman
 
  6  
Reply Sat 22 Oct, 2016 02:19 am
@farmerman,
heres a new "family tree" diagram for humans as a function of their genetic links to chimps and bonobos. Mayr "lump diagram" is the old classification system based solely on avaiable fossils nd the new one considers fossils AND genetics (via the relationship among living species)

    http://www.earthmagazine.org/sites/earthmagazine.org/files/styles/full_width/public/2016-08/HomininHominid.png?itok=o0tFbmSB

Basically, we all split from some 6 million year old pongid ape and ALL of our differentiation among Homo and Australopithecus, Sahelanthropus, ARdipithecus , Orrorin,Paranthropus ,and Kenyanthropus, happened AFTER we all split from the common ancestor
0 Replies
 
Setanta
 
  1  
Reply Sat 22 Oct, 2016 02:55 am
@Blickers,
Yeah, we got a jerk loose here . . . i voted your post back up.
0 Replies
 
jespah
 
  3  
Reply Sat 22 Oct, 2016 08:29 am
@Setanta,
Oh, definitely. We as a species are lucky for a lot of reasons. The creation of the Himalayas changed a lot of Africa's climate (even though the Himalayas are in Asia). Taming fire. Walking upright. Domesticating the dog. Throwing rocks purposefully for the first time. All of these things saved our collective bacon. We were endangered for quite a while there.
farmerman
 
  1  
Reply Sat 22 Oct, 2016 08:30 am
@jespah,
inventing bacon...
0 Replies
 
ehBeth
 
  3  
Reply Sat 22 Oct, 2016 10:31 am
from this morning's Vox browse

http://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2016/10/19/13324842/neanderthals-hpv-genital-warts

Quote:
Yes, humans and Neanderthals had sex. And they gave us an STD.
To be fair, we may have given them diseases that ultimately led to their extinction.


<snip>

Quote:
But it does tell us a lot more about human history, and can give us insight on how exposure to disease has shaped human evolution. STDs have been around since the dawn of humanity. Herpes may have first infected our ancestors more than a million years ago. Syphilis has been around since at least the Middle Ages. It’s possible STDs are what encouraged humans to stick to monogamous pairings.

“The real big picture is that our history, our evolutionary history is a lot more complex than we thought 5 to 10 years ago,” Pimenoff says. The fact that we interbred with other species can explain how humans acquired new genes after leaving Africa. But it’s important to know that viruses can drive our evolution as well. “And our history, is also the history of our pathogens.”

Pimenoff hopes to continue to study this to answer another big answer about HPV: Why does it clear up in some people very quickly, and linger and cause cancer in others? “We don’t know why in some people, the immune system naturally clears it,” Pimenoff says. Depending on your genetic background, and on the particular strain you’re exposed to “there could be a different to how your immune system reacts to an HPV infection,” he says. (The best prevention for HPV-related cancers right now, he says, are the widely available vaccines.)

Pimenoff’s study also raises questions about what happened to the Neanderthals. If we contracted HPV from them, what did they get from us? It’s possible that humans spread diseases that brought about their extinction. In April, researchers at Cambridge and Oxford Brookes universities published a paper that suggested Neanderthals may have been particularly susceptible to germs that cause stomach ulcers and herpes.

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