I think this is one of those cases of an "expert" ...
A lawyer "with fifteen years work experience in political transitions and democratisation".
He frequently publishes for the BBC, New York Times, The Guardian, Die Zeit and other papers.
During World War I, even when the battles were over, for many soldiers the fighting continued, as they had to overcome the physical and mental consequences of their service. It was often difficult to recuperate and find their place in society again, economically as well as socially.
In this exhibition, we take a closer look at different aspects of the process of reintegration by highlighting some international examples, based on newspaper articles, illustrated with photographs and stories from various sources.
The above quote is from europeana
's online exhibition "Seven men, one leg
- The reintegration of soldiers after World War I"
Which in no way establishes his credentials for historical analysis. I continue to dissent from his comparison.
I've been reading The King's Speech
, about Lionel Logue, an elocutionist who helped to establish speech therapy in Britain. Before he and his family moved to England in 1924, he had worked with Australian veterans of the Great War who had lost the ability to speak because of "shell shock" and having been gassed.
100 years ago, the German Imperial Navy German celebrates a great success: the first direct attack on US soil.
Wikipedia: Attack on Orleans
Google books: Attack on Orleans: The World War I Submarine Raid on Cape Cod
massmoments: July 21, 1918
German U-Boat Attacks Cape Cod
More here: The Attack!
(with a lot of links to features/reports, too)
Fascinatin' stuff, Walter--thanks.
As a reminder of the end of the First World War 100 years ago, Cologne Cathedral was illuminated with moving images. (Actually, it will be done until this weekend.)
The light production was to be seen under the motto "Dona nobis pacem" (Give us peace) on the south facade of the cathedral. Several high performance projectors showed pictures of white crosses or terms like friendship, tolerance, compassion and community.
The performance was intended as a sign against hatred and agitation. At the end of 1918, hundreds of thousands of German soldiers from Belgium and France had moved back east over the Hohenzollern Bridge, right next to Cologne Cathedral.
Frank Apisa wrote:
Nine European Sovereigns at Windsor for the funeral of King Edward VII in May of 1910, four years before the war began. Standing, from left to right: King Haakon VII of Norway, Tsar Ferdinand of Bulgaria, King Manuel II of Portugal, Kaiser Wilhelm II of the German Empire, King George I of Greece and King Albert I of Belgium. Seated, from left to right: King Alfonso XIII of Spain, King-Emperor George V of the United Kingdom and King Frederick VIII of Denmark. Within the next decade, Kaiser Wilhelm II and Tsar Ferdinand's empires would engage in bloody warfare with the nations led by King Albert I and King George V. The war was also a family affair, as Kaiser Wilhelm II was a first cousin to King George V, and an uncle to King Albert I. Of the remaining monarchs pictured, over the next decade one would be assassinated (Greece), three would keep their nations neutral (Norway, Spain, and Denmark), and two would be forced out of power by revolutions. (W. & D. Downey) #
I realize this is a very old thread and post, but when I look at the picture I think I see Tsar Nicholas seated in the front. Am I wrong?
It's George V.
This is the Czar
They do look like each other, they're all bloody related.
Since the war is almost over (at least 100 years ago), here are the data of my maternal grandfather:
He was a paramedic, suffered from the consequences of gas attacks until his death in 1959.
Interesting that the end of his service apparently wasn't noted.
1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War
is an English-language virtual reference work on the First World War.
Might be interesting for those still following this thread.
Wow, I temporarily forgot that George, Nicolas and Wilhelm I were all cousins. We have a ton of books about the Romanov's, the Russian revolution, Rasputin and others events and personalities from that period of time. Some of the books are legitimate well researched vehicles and some are just propaganda. I have a copy of The Rasputin File by Edvard Radzinsky, but I can't vouch for it's authenticity. The author refers to Rasputin as the semi-literate monk on almost every page. He also claims his conclusions are based on recently (this century) released Secret Police surveillance reports from that time. It may be true, maybe not squeaky clean accurate, but it is interesting to see the methods used at that time to surveil people.
I've been trying to find a book titled: Three Royal Cousins and the Road to War I. I ordered one from amazon, but it was mailed to somebody In Texas and the Company hasn't gotten it back in stock. Now that I'm thinking about it, I'll look again and hopefully find a copy.
PS, I know I didn't use the correct title of the Police force that surveilled Rasputin, but I don't feel like looking for the book right now to refresh my recollection.
There a great irony in trying to unite Europe under one Royal family ending up as one of the bloodiest wars of all time.
You're absolutely right. I wish I could wrap up and condense all the thoughts circulating thru my head into something coherent and wise. But you already did and it is brilliant in its simplicity.
I don't recall the name, if there ever was one, for the Emperor's personal police in the Russian Empire. They were popularly known as the Pharaohs, and if police action were needed, then Cossacks stationed in St. Petersburg would be called in. (Petr Alexeyevitch, the fourth Romanov Tsar, known in the West as Peter the Great, secured the recognition of the Holy Roman Emperor that he was an Emperor during 1697-98 "Grand Embassy" to the West. Thereafter, although the term Tsar continued to be used, they were all technically Emperors or Empresses.) On the occasion of the Great War the Emperor Nicholas II changed the name of St. Petersburg to Petrograd--the name changed but the players remained the same.
The empire's industry at that time was centered on St. Petersburg/Petrograd, particularly the light arms and munitions industry. When Bolsheviks were identified in the factories, they were sent to the front, which tended to radicalize the army. There were two revolutions in 1917, which it seems most people don't understand. The first, February Revolution (March in the western calendar) occurred when women in the factories marched to Petrograd, and marched down and demonstrated on the Nevsky Prospekt, The Bolshevik shop stewards had forbidden this, but the women ignored them. They wanted bread for their families, and were increasingly unable to afford it. The Pharaoh's called out the Cossacks, but the women approached them and pushed past the horses or stooped under the bellies of the horses. Many of the women asked: "You wouldn't hurt us, would you Little Mother?" (Little Mother is an affectionate term without regard to gender.) Indeed, the Cossacks wouldn't hurt them, and at that point, the Pharaoh's could read the hand-writing on the wall, and they left town in a hurry. The revolution was accomplished at that point, and as the Bolsheviks had tried to prevent the march, they had not controlled it. The Bolshevik Revolution took place in October (November in the western calendar), and hence, "Krasny Oktyabr"--Red October.
One of the best accounts of the Bolshevik Revolution, although grossly biased in favor of the Bolsheviks, is Ten Days that Shook the World, by John Reed, an American socialist and stringer for The New York Times. He doesn't give much detail about the February Revolution, though. There is no single work that I have read (and the books I have not read are legion) about that so crucial event. Perhaps Walter can recommend a good one.
Why do you feel that a snotty response is necessary? This is a history thread, this is what we do.
History???? Thanks again for the tip.
Well, I've tried to converse with you in this and several other threads. I won't be making that mistake again.