I can't accept the conception of a deterministic universe. And I felt this way before hearing about quantum theory, string theory, chaos theory, etc. It seems--and I got this, as I recall, from Nietzsche--that causes and effects are purely conceptual entities. We think them rather than perceive them--this also sounds a bit like Hume.
We see a phenomenon (state, event, etc.) and want to know how to make it occur or not occur in the future (i.e., to control it). We have learned to apply a causal model to our quest. We call the phenomenon an EFFECT and pursue the discovery of its CAUSE (or causes--including necessary and/or sufficient). Note that while our model presupposes that the cause occured before the effect--viz. it's an antecedent variable/condition--we look for it AFTER conceiving the effect. Notice that while causes and effects exist as part of a purely conceptual exercise we normally imagine that we actually SEE them in the world.
Social scientists use causal and functional models to explain states. For example one can "explain" an institution historically, in terms of the conditions which gave rise to it. This is, of course, a causal explanation. But there was a time when institutions were explained in terms of their value as effects, i.e., their contribution to the function prerequisite of social stability, social order, survival, etc.
All of this is useful, but can we draw from such puny efforts the notion of cosmic determinism, that the Cosmos is essentially a chain of actual causes and effects? I think not.