I am getting ready to get into some table action and am worried that there's going to be some sort of poker catch phrase that's going to trip me up...
I can't imagine how that would happen, and I've played hundreds of thousands (if not millions) of hands of poker and even quit my job to do it full-time for a while.
The overwhelming majority of poker players I know can increase their profitability simply by learning to fold more often, and I just don't see how jargon can help you unless you opponent tells you what he has while using jargon that you don't understand or something equally outlandish. And even then, reads and others such information are a small part of the game. 90% of poker is just letting go of your cards more often, so here's the best "jargon" you can learn:
Use it more often, and you'll likely* be a better player.
I'm sure some people have the opposite problem, and need to fold less, but of the tens of thousands of people I've played poker with I haven't seen any.