Now we're talking with some great examples! Fun.
Trying to keep it in some order of your posts....
Re the pasties, it reminds me of empanadas, which are Latin American. In my personal experience, Mexican. Last time I was at the grocery store in Mexico I got a couple from their bakery dept. I'm sure I would have enjoyed them if they were what I was expecting. Since they were in the bakery I was thinking they were going to be filled with something sweet-ish (really sweet bakery items aren't the norm), but when I got home found they were filled with spinach and I forget, something else. Looking online I see they can be sweet or savory.
So in England pies are generally savory, and many times hand held?
You do have fruit pies though, don't you? Looking it up, it seems you may call them tarts?
When Americans say pie, we are almost always referring to a dessert pie with fruit or some kind of creamy filling. Except for beef or chicken pot pie..
Those M&S sandwiches look really good. I particularly like the idea of the tuna and corn. Corn btw being a food that originated in Mexico. They eat a lot of corn in the form of tortillas (flour tortillas not as popular), a lot of spinach too.
Now this is purely a "what you're used to seeing thing" about the containers the M&S sammy's are in. Here, the only places you'd see a sandwich packaged like that would be at a convenience store, gas (petrol) station and the like.
Packaged like that, it appears to my eyes like the kind of thing you buy when you're on a long distance trip and you've got to get something to eat and have to make the best of bad choices. You just expect it to be all nasty and ****, like white bread with a thin spread of god knows what on it.
Obviously not true all over.
The one's you showed looked tasty.
My experience with Indian food is limited. As in going to lunch buffets. I don't know enough to associate the name of the dish with what it is, and just take what looks good. I do like what I've had, with a couple of exceptions. Although I do think the smell of Indian food is confusing. It's like "I like what I'm smelling but I don't exactly know why"
Englands definition of what pudding consists of is quite different, yet similar. Your definition covers a lot more area. Mind is limited to desserts. It seems what you would call custard. We would call something like your black pudding a sausage.
Re custard, my personal idea of a custard is very very narrow. Creme brulee and nothing else. It's what my brain orders me to do.
Years ago I lived in Wisconsin, which is dreadfully cold in Winter. Think -23 to -29 celsius for a week at a time. Then it pokes up to -16.
During one of these times, someone asked me if I wanted to go get custard. I thought that was a rather odd thing, but delightful. Wow I thought, what a homey custom. Going out for some nice warm soothing egg custard.
We pulled up to the place and while still outside I'm thinking "wtf?"
It was an ice cream shop, and I said so. The other person said "No it's not, this is custard"
Yeah, friggin below freezing custard while we're standing here in thermal underwear, scarves, hats, gloves, overcoat and lined boots.