The HepB vaccine or HPV vaccine is even a bit different than this "anti-drug" use vaccine because it is normal and healthy part of life to have sex. It is not a normal or healthy part of life to take drugs that can be addictive and deadly.
It used to be recommended that people get an HIV test at least 6-months before engaging in unprotected intercourse with a partner. Still, people would have protected sex before that, which is a little crazy if you assume that your partner is carrying HIV until proven otherwise by a test.
The 'normalcy' and 'healthy part of life' aspects of having sex are subjective. It used to be normal and healthy to abstain and/or remain celibate except within marriage and/or as a means of conceiving pregnancy. Eating is also a 'normal and healthy'part of life' but that makes it more difficult to deal with food addictions, sugar addiction, overeating, and all the health risks that come with that. Some people get dangerous GI surgeries in hopes of overcoming their appetite with all the health risks that come with that.
I don't know how popular plastic surgery is these days, but it seemed like for a while it was the go-to remedy for low self-esteem and/or social acceptance based on looks. Why would parents allow their children to get surgery to 'fit in' when they could just teach them that social ridicule/shunning/etc. are childish and should just be ignored? Idk, but if people are willing to resort to plastic surgery to be more popular, why wouldn't they take vaccines to avoid the risk of their children ending up as drug addicts?
Yes, these are all different kinds of 'diseases' with different causes, pathogenic and/or social-psychological and/or psycho-physiological; but pharmaceutical interventions have become commonplace (probably overly common actually) and biological/genetic engineering is becoming more conflated with pharmaceutical chemistry.
Obviously pharmaceutical drugs, including recreation drugs, have to interface with the biological cells of the body in order to work. The body can also get help from various vitamins and natural herbs/homeopathy/etc. and those interactions will also be better understood as nano-research continues to improve.
If you think about it, vaccination evolved as part of Pasteur's research into microbiology and its role in pharmacology. They are connected sciences. It will not be surprising if vaccine-like preventative medicine is developed for not only immunizing children/people against the prospect of drug addiction, but also other risks, such as cancer, alzheimers, etc.
People who are against criminalization of recreational drugs often argue that drug use is a health issue, not a moral one; so it should make them happy to see vaccines and other medical interventions/cures being developed for recreational drug use to prevent criminalization. Of course there is a whole industry that wants to keep drug addiction as legal and optional as possible in order to make money off it (and tax it), but the question is how exploitative that is considering addiction is a disease. I.e. how wrong is it to exploit disease to make money when a cure is available?