genetic expression among large populations is most often done by statistical methods.
The Hardy Weinberg distribution is a binomial expansion.
Dolo's LAw is a statistical expression of why certain traits are not RE-evolved. (But Im not sure that this is even an accepted "law" nymore)
Paleoecology uses statistical analyses to determine an environment by sedimentology and the morphological expressions in large fossil assemblages that contain varying numbers of species. (Usually large numbers of one a few species or less, indicates a stressed paleoenvironment). The Marcellus Shale was , a long time ago, mapped as a continuous body of sedimentary rocks with a specific breakout of certain brachiopod fossils in a specific sedimentological basin. (Turns out that this became a tool to find gas deposits)
Creationism uses probability to develop reasons for why evolution is NOT possible