Wed 23 Apr, 2014 03:37 pm
According to Henry's law, if the partial pressure of a gas increases,
(a) gas molecules will came out of solution
(b) more gas molecules will enter solution
(c) the solubility of the gas will decrease
(d) the volume of the gas will decrease
The apneustic centers of the pons
(a) inhibit the pneumataxic and inspiratory centers
(b) provide continuous stimulation to the inspiratory center
(c) monitor blood gas levels
(d) alter chemoreceptor sensitivity
All the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata except the
(a) olfactory epithelium
(b) medullary chemoreceptors
(c) aortic body
(d) carotid body
What are the five primary functions of the respiratory system?
1. Responsible for the exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide.
2. Supplies oxygen to the blood.
3. Gets rid of carbon dioxide and other waste gases.
4. Inspiration (inhaling air) and Expiration (exhaling air).
5. Inside the cell, cellular respiration generates energy.
What defense mechanisms protect the respiratory system from becoming contaminated with debris and pathogens?
respiratory epithelial cells w/tight junctions
flow of fluid & mucus by cilia
lysozyme in nasal secretions
By what three mechanisms is carbon dioxide transported in the bloodstream?
The primary physiological adjustment necessary for an athlete to compete at high altitudes is
(a) increased respiratory rate
(b) increased heart rate
(c) elevated hematocrit
(d) a, b, and care correct
An increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood causes chemoreceptors to stimulate the respiratory centers, causing
(a) decreased respiratory rate
(b) increased respiratory rate
(c) hypocapnia .
What are the primary effects of pH, temperature, and 2,3bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) on hemoglobin saturation?
Mr. B. has had chronic advanced emphysema for 15 years. While hospitalized with a respiratory infection, he goes into respiratory distress. Without thinking, his nurse immediately administers pure oxygen, which causes Mr. B. to stop breathing. Why?
How does pulmonary ventilation differ from alveolar ventilation, and what is the function of each type of ventilation?
*____1. ECF a. reduces thirst
*____2. ADH b. stimulates water conservation
____3. Aldosterone c. promotes calcium loss
____4. ANP d. weak acid
i____5. Dehydration e. baroreceptors
____6. Fixed acid f. interstitial fluid
d____7. Organic acid g. strong acid
____8. Acidosis h. Sodium loss
j____9. Calcitriol i. Sodium retention
j. Calcium reabsorption
What are fluid shifts? What is their function, and what factors can cause them?
Define and give an example of (a) a volatile acid, (b) a fixed acid, and (c) an organic acid. Which represent(s) the greatest threat to acid-base balance? What reason?
What are the three major buffer systems in body fluids? How does each system work?
Specialized cells that engulf organic materials that might otherwise clog the filter at the lamina densa are
(a) supporting cells (b) juxtamedullary cells
(c) podocytes (d) macula densa
Pickup or delivery of substances that are reabsorbed or secreted by the PCT and the DCT is provided by the
(a) afferent arteriole
(b) peritubular capillaries
(c) renal artery
(d) efferent arteriole
What is the primary function of the urinary system?
How do the kidneys control blood pH?
Describe the micturation reflex.
Dehydration would cause
(a) an increase in the hematocrit
(b) a decrease in the hematocrit
(c) no effect on the hematocrit
(d) an increase in plasma volume
16. **Erythropoietin directly stimulates RBC formation by
(a) increasing rates of mitotic divisions in erythroblasts
(b) speeding up the maturation of red blood cells
(c) accelerating the rate of hemoglobin synthesis
(d) a, b, and c are correct
17.** A person with Type A blood has
(a) antigen A in the plasma
(b) anti-B antibodies in the plasma
(c) anti-A antibodies on the red blood cells
(d) antigen B on the red blood cell membranes
18. **Hemolytic disease of the newborn may result if
(a) the mother is Rh-positive and the father is Rh-negative
(b) both the father and the mother are Rh-negative
(c) both the father and the mother are Rh-positive
(d) an Rh-negative mother carries an Rh-positive fetus
19. *How do red blood cells differ from typical cells in the body?
hemoglobin and no nucleus
20. *How does blood defend against toxins and pathogens in the body?
with it’s defense mechanisms, lubrication,
21. *How would the extended use of antibiotics affect blood clotting?
anticoagulant would stop clotting
What is an endocrine reflex? Compare endocrine and neural reflexes.
How does the formation of an antigen-antibody complex cause the elimination of an antigen?
An investigator at a crime scene discovers some body fluid on the victim's clothing. The investigator carefully takes a sample and sends it to the crime lab for analysis. On the basis of analysis of antibodies, could the crime lab determine whether the sample is blood plasma or semen? Explain.
Compare or contrast recognition or sensitization of B cells and T cells.
Using an average cycle of 28 days, describe each of the three phases of the uterine cycle.
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