" Nothing is entirely independent. Or, to put it another way, things are obviously related."
It might help in some of our thoughts to think in terms of the new science of general systems theory,or wholistic thinking,certainly neither society nor man is a closed system.
"If it is not possible for an educated or 'enlightened' individual human being to define themselves outside of the greater societal context then how is it that society goes forward at all? In order for society to change something new must be added. The something new that must be added from time to time will arise from persons who while acting in society sees things from a different perspective. Therefore an original thinker will cause society to change."
Actually Pythagorean I think what you are talking about has always been a reality,often called,the hero's journey,perhaps a mutant to the norm.As stated above, society is not a closed system, that I believe is its strength.
"There must exist a point where society is in want
of something, whether they be starving for that old time religion, or that new fangled rock 'n roll. And there must exist an individual who interprets the same society in a different way than what was previously done. That is an original individual thinker."
Again this thinker is on his hero's journey or the hero cycle,it can be detected in all great literature through time,he leaves,faces great dangers, has the aid perhaps of a majical wiseman,conquers the beast, and brings home the boon to his society.One possiable outcome is that upon his return he holds the gold out to the people and it turns to sand in their hands.Google-Joseph Campbell and the hero cycle.
"And so I have to ask a question: Where does your true self lie? Does it lie within? Or does it lie without?"
The Upanishads state,the self in one,is the self in all.After much thought on this I am inclined to agree.The self is immutable,only personality,ego ect are subjected to the conditioning of context or environment,part of that environment is the society which contains you.
"I'm saying this becuase today "societal concerns" are, like God, everywhere. Even as the individual gets more and more isolated, demoralized and desperate. That which is today most necessary - in an environment which sees only its 'self-environment' - is a position, a standpoint, a perspective and a worldview, which can release the individual and free him from the diarrhea of subjectivity."
Pythagorean,I don't think the problem comes to subjectivity or objectivity,the answer is in expanding that subjectivity until the concept of self includes ones environment,the natural inclination of selfinterest will ensure sucess from there.