I guess primates fit into this chain , however if we had evolved as scientist believe from apes then why are apes and chimps and the like still in there seperate form's .Another thing that i need explained is why are there so many different nationalities on earth different colors and languages if we did come from apes how did this diversify in such a short period of time .and we obviously have much greater brain capasity then primate's however dolphins are intelligent by comparison to the human brain .most thing s' that have evolved have superseated there previous form and those earlier lines extinct .
I suspect you've been reading some religious bullshit. No scientist believes that humans evolved from apes and chimps--humans have a common ancestor with the great apes a long, long time ago. Nationalities is a reference to nation states, and the idea of nation states is rather a recent one. Instead of saying nationalities, you should say ethnic groups (and you should look up "ethnic groups" so that you can begin to thoroughly understand the concept). The reason there are so many ethnic groups is this: modern human beings (homo sapiens sapiens
) have been around for a long time--even those who disagree about how long are talking about a range of from 50,000 to 150,000 years. If one assumes 15 to 16 years for a generation, thats anywhere from well over 3,000 generations, to ten thousand generations. Population growth is a slow process, especially among populations with a high infant mortality rate, and a short life expectancy--it means it takes a long time for large numbers of people to accumulate. This is especially true before settled agriculture, which only began, at most 12,000 or 13,000 years ago. So you have very few people wandering around in a very large world, and becoming separate from one another on a routine basis. It only takes a few generations for the slang of teen agers to become incomprehensible to their grandparents--it would only take a few generations of groups being isolated from one another for new languages and customs to arise.
Skin color is a function of several factors, but melanin is the most important one. Everyone has in their skin structures known as melanin bodies. These absorb ultraviolet radiation (which helps protect the skin) and they give off heat. To aid the protection from ultraviolet radiation, they disperse melanin into the skin. So, the more melanin, the "darker" the skin is, and the more efficiently one's skin can cool off in a hot climate. So dark skin has lots of advantages in a hot climate (hominids--"pre-humans" to use a clumsy but useful idea--came from a hot climate). However, losing heat is a bad idea in a cold climate, so people living in cold climates would not benefit from dark skin, and it would not take very long for humans in a cold climate to lose the dark skin. This can be seen operating in individuals from people with dark skins. In South America, many aboriginal tribes have a custom of putting a bride-to-be in isolation for a lunar month or longer before she is married. In just that short of a period of time, her skin gets noticeably lighter in color because she is not exposed to the sun.
You might ask why people would move to a colder climate. Modern humans arose in a time of ice ages. At the height of an ice age, there is a huge ice cap on the northern hemisphere, anywhere from one to three kilometers thick. In the periglacial regions (the regions near the ice cap), huge herds of grazing animals arose. Near the ice caps, forests did not do well. The cold, powerful winds that come down off the ice cap prevent large forests from forming, and in areas of Eurasia which were later heavily covered by forest, there were vast grasslands in the time of the ice age. Trees would only grow in gallery forests (the band of trees next to a river in a river valley) or on the south facing slopes of hills and mountains. Otherwise, the land was covered by millions of square kilometers of grassland. Grazing animals did well in such an environment, so long as they put on a heavy layer of fat before winter set in. Grazing animals specialize in turning their fodder (the grass they eat) into fat.
Humans in those days lived by hunting and gathering. Gathering takes place at only specific times of the year--when the berries are ripe, when the standing grasses dry out and go to seed, when root vegetables go to seed. So you only gather food at certain times of the year, and then everybody in the band needs to throw down and gather as much food as possible in the shortest time possible. But hunting goes on year round. This was especially true in warm climates in which the meat will not keep for long. You can smoke and dry some of it, but you still need to hunt year round. In the colder climates, the herds of grazing animals were vast--billions of animals. They were all covered in convenient fur coats which you could use for yourself after you had killed and butchered the animal, and they had thick layers of fat. If you render the fat, clarify it by boiling it, it will keep for a long time, and it can be used to store thin strips of meat, as well as berries and grain--there is a food used by the aborigines of North America called pemmican which is made by mixing berries and grains with strips of meat all preserved in rendered animal fat.
So it when humans followed game animals north, they found an incredible abundance. So long as they were smart enough to take advantage of the fur coats, the hides and the fat, they could live and live very well in the cold climate. In that cold climate, they didn't need dark skins, and in fact, pale skin was an advantage. So, you get "white" people. White people will revert to dark skin if they go into a warm climate. The aborigines of North and South America came from eastern Asia at the end of the last ice age. After several generations in warm, sunny climates in the Americas, their skin got dark again. The Hindus of India and the Persians of Iran are the descendants of "white" people who got dark again in sunny, warm climates.
I don't know if you are of a religious nature, and don't fault you if you are. But religion is a piss poor source for information on humans and animals. In fact, most of what they teach on those subjects is utter hogwash. There are not different "races" of human beings. Modern humans have been around for tens of thousands of years, and none of us have "gone extinct." All the diversity one can see in modern humans can be produced in a few thousand years, and there have tens of thousands of years in which it has occurred.
What i have told you is simplistic--it is in some place oversimplified. Scientifically well-informed people might quibble about the details. But i have tried to keep it simple, because you need to start somewhere, and it is obvious that you believe a lot of silly things.