....a full page MyTurn in Newsweek Magazine....
Quote:....a full page MyTurn in Newsweek Magazine....
No wonder it closed down !
Yes, is it not the case that Kant claimed all phenomena are human constructions, that what we experience are only the manifestations of how we filter the "thing in itself"? You agree it seems with Nietzsche and the phenomenalists that there are no things-in-themselves, only our "human" perceptions. That is my view: the world is me (or cada cabeza is un mundo) (or us: i.e., our culturally constituted reality is our effort to create the illusion of a completely shared experience). What is beyond that, the Tao, is ineffable.
Likewise, neither Nietzche nor the phenomenologists thought that our perceptions constituted reality, or even an ego-generated reflection of it.
Philosophy is a battle against the bewitchment of our intelligence by means of language. ... For philosophical problems arise when language goes on holiday.
Quote:Likewise, neither Nietzche nor the phenomenologists thought that our perceptions constituted reality, or even an ego-generated reflection of it.
With respect to that word "reality", I suggest we note that Wittgenstein argued that language is an imprecise 'language game' with many different rules for words depending upon how the word is used.
Quote:Philosophy is a battle against the bewitchment of our intelligence by means of language. ... For philosophical problems arise when language goes on holiday.
The way a Buddhist thinks about "reality" is influenced by all pertaining to the Samsara-Nirvana dichotomy. On the other hand, a phenomenologist is influenced by Kant's argument that there can be no direct access to hypothetical noumena.
In short, there is no agreed context (language game) among those we call philosophers to anchor the term "reality". That is why I argue above that "reality" is simply a word in everyday (non philosophical) usage denoting agreement about "states of affairs". But this line of argument tends leave "reality" to the layman, and to shift the philosophical (ontological) focus towards descriptions of those "states". Those descriptions will certainly differ according to one's philosophical leanings. Some phenomenologists, like Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty indeed argued that those states involve the inextricability of observer and observed, and this has something in common with Buddhist holism. The word "ego" plays no part in phenomenological descriptions because that word is embedded in other philosophical paradigms such as "naive realism".
In terms of culture, Kant's early views may be placed in a Eurasian rather than a purely Western context. Recent research suggests that key ideas of Kant's natural philosophy also have sources in Taoist and Confucian thought, which were disseminated in continental Europe by Jesuits based in China, popularized by Leibniz and Wolff, and further developed by Wolff's Sinophile student Bilfinger.
"I exist, therefore I think"
"Conscience" is not the same as "consciousness". The former has to do with guilt, the latter with awareness. The ego-self is another matter. We feel that it is a permanent entity, a subject of experience and an agent of action; and THAT is an illusion.