Most hotels do not reserve by room whether you book over the phone or on the internet. What I suggest is when you check in - ask to have a quiet room or one away from the elevators, maybe toward the end of the halls -- these tend to be quieter than others.
You may also want to read reviews -- for example tripadvisor often times will give tips like ask for a room on a higher floor so you do not hear the traffic or rooms on the east side are near the highway so they tend to be louder.
Then when you check in ask if you can a room on a higher floor on the south side of the hotel, etc. If they have one available at the time of check in, the front desk will try to accomodate you.
If when you go in the room and you find it noisy or smelly - call the front desk and tell the problem and see if they can provide you a different room -- do this almost right when you get in your room and before you use anything.
Most hotels want to make their guests happy so if you ask nicely and politely they do try to accomodate you if it is at all possible, but be reasonable.