While on the subject of the death of Jesus and the events that occurred on the day of Preparation to the Jewish Passover on which he died, let’s begin by first explaining a little about the Jewish Passover.
Exodus 12: 3-11. From the Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre; Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying: In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to their fathers' houses, a lamb for a household; and if the household be too little for a lamb, then shall he and his neighbour next unto his house take one according to the number of the souls; according to every man's eating ye shall make your count for the lamb.
Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year; ye shall take it from the sheep, or from the goats; and ye shall keep it unto the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at dusk.
And they shall take of the blood, and put it on the two side-posts and on the lintel, upon the houses wherein they shall eat it. And they shall eat the flesh in ‘THAT’ night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; with bitter herbs they shall eat it. Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; its head with its legs and with the inwards thereof.
And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; but that which remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire. And thus shall ye eat it: with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste, it is the LORD'S Passover.
The above is from the Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre. In the Hebrew” Exodus 12: 6; the English word ‘DUSK’ is taken from the Hebrew - בין הערבים beyn haarbayim, which means "between the two evenings, and which is translated in English bibles as evening or twilight, but the Hebrew ben ha-'arbayim literally means "between the two settings."
Rabbinic sources take this to mean "from noon on." According to Radak, the first "setting" occurs when the sun passes its zenith just after noon and the shadows begin to lengthen, and the second "setting" is the actual sunset. (p. 55, vol. 2, The Jewish Publication Society Torah Commentary, "Exodus") Jesus died at 3PM, midway between noon and 6PM sunset.
The Jewish day begins at sunset, and consists of twelve hours of darkness followed by twelve hours of light: “A day has twelve hours, said Jesus, so work while the light is with you.”
The first creative day, or period of universal activity, began when from out of the darkness, God said, “Let there be light,” this was followed by another period of universal darkness as evening descended, ending the first of the six creative days of a period of darkness followed by an equal period of light.
In reference to the single day festival of Passover, we read in Exodus 12: 14; You must celebrate ‘THIS DAY’ as a religious festival to remind you of what I, the LORD, have done. Celebrate it for all time to come.”
Although the bible clearly states that the Passover was to be held on the 14th day of the first month, which is Nisan and also called ‘Abib, and was to be a single day festival which was to be held for all time as seen in Exodus 12: 14, the Jews were to later incorporate the single day Festival of Passover into their seven days Festival of Unleavened bread.
Numbers 28: 16; The Passover festival in honour of the Lord, is to be held on the 14th day of the first month. On the fifteenth day a religious Festival begins which lasts seven days, during which, only unleavened bread is to be eaten. On the first day of the seven days Festival of Unleavened Bread, (The 15th day of Abib/Nisan) you are to gather for worship and no work is to be done: A most Holy Sabbath …………. On the last day (The 21st of Abib/Nisan) you must meet for worship and do no work, another most Holy Sabbath day.
Exodus 12: 22-23; The Israelites are commanded by the Lord, through Moses, that on the night of the Passover, the 14th day of Abib/Nisan, the night that the Lord killed all the firstborn males of Egypt who were not protected by the sacrificial blood, they were not to leave their houses until ‘MORNING.
Knowing from Exodus 12: 23; that the Israelites could not leave their houses until sunrise after the Lord had killed all the firstborn males of Egypt who were not protected by the sacrificial blood of the lambs that the Israelites had eaten that night, we now turn to Deuteronomy 16: 5-6; which reveals that sunset was ‘THE TIME OF THE DAY’ that the Israelites left Egypt: this verse is not referring to the day that the Passover was to be held, but to ‘THE TIME OF THE DAY,’ it was to be held.
While Numbers 33: 3; reveals that the people of Israel left Egypt on the day ‘AFTER’ the first Passover, Let me repeat that, it was on the ‘DAY AFTER’ the first Passover, as the ‘SUN SET’ on the 14th Day of Nisan, they left Egypt in full view of the Egyptians who were burying their firstborn sons, who the Lord had killed in the darkness of the previous night, wherein the beginning of that night, the Israelites had eaten the Passover lambs that had been killed between the two evenings that preceded their Passover meal, which was between noon of the 13th of Nissan, and sunset, the beginning of the 14th of Nisan.
Deuteronomy 16:1; Observe the month of Aviv and celebrate the Passover of the LORD your God, because in the month of Aviv he brought you out of Egypt "BY NIGHT".
It was in the night, which was the beginning of the seven days festival of ‘Unleavened Bread’, ‘the day ‘AFTER’ the first Passover,’ that the Lord, through Moses, brought the Israelites out of Egypt.
Because the Jews had forsaken the command of the Lord, to eat the Passover meal in the evening of the 14th day of Nisan (Which Jesus and his apostles did) but instead, ate their Pascal lambs in the evening and beginning of the 15th day of Nisan, which is the first of the seven day Festival of Unleavened Bread, it became necessary that the sacrificial Lamb of God be killed between the two evenings (3PM the 9th hour of the 12 hours of daylight, to sunset) on the day of preparation to the Jews erroneous Passover, which day of preparation to the true Passover commanded by God, should have been the 13th day of Nisan.
The Jewish day began at sunset and consisted of 12 hours of darkness followed by 12 hours of Daylight.
Jesus said; "The Day has 12 hours has it not, so work while the light is with you.
Jesus held the Passover with his disciples in the evening and beginning of the 14th day of the first month, there was no Pascal lamb at that Passover meal, as Jesus gave to his disciples the bread and wine, which symbolised the body and blood of the true lamb, who takes on the sins of the world.
After giving many instructions to his disciples, they retired to a garden across the Kidron brook, where Jesus would often gather with his disciples. Judas knew where they would be, and in the early part of the 12 hours of darkness of the erroneous day of Preparation to the Jewish Passover, he, with a group of Roman soldiers and some temple guards, came with lanterns to light the way and arrested Jesus. After being questioned by the Jewish authorities, spat on, slapped around and mocked, he was then taken to the palace of the gentile Pontus Pilate, it was just before midnight and the Jews would not enter the gentile palace as that would have made them ritually unclean, and unable to eat of the Passover lamb next evening of the 15th of Nisan, see John 18: 28.
Matthew 27: 19; While Pilate was sitting in the judgement hall, his wife sent him a message: “Have nothing to do with that innocent man, because in a dream 'THIS NIGHT" I suffered much on account of him.” (Repeat: "THIS NIGHT".
It was not 'NOON' when Pilate passed judgement on Jesus, as most bibles claim, it was the sixth hour of the 12 hours of darkness (MIDNIGHT) on the day of preparation to the erroneous Jewish Passover. See RSV John 19: 14.
See Mark 15: 25 RSV; He was nailed to the cross on the 3rd hour of the 12 hours of daylight, (9 AM) on the day of preparation to the Jewish seven day Passover, darkness covered the Land at (NOON) the 6th hour of the 12 hours of daylight on the day of preparation to the Jewish Passover, Jesus died on the 9th hour (3PM) on the day of preparation to the Jewish Passover, and was buried just as the sun was setting on the day of preparation to the Jewish seven days Passover, as the Jews were preparing to eat their pascal Lambs in the evening of the 15th day of Nisan, which lambs had been killed between the two evenings (Mid-day to sunset) on the day of preparation to their Passover, which was the first of their seven day Festival of Unleavened bread, a Most High Sabbath, the first of their seven day Festival of Unleavened Bread on which no work could be done, which Most High Passover and Easter are supposed to fall on, or near, a full moon in the spring.
The seven days Festival of Passover in Israel, always begins on the 15th day of the Hebrew month of Nisan. Because the Hebrew months are pegged directly to the lunar cycle, the 15th day of Nisan is always a full moon. Jesus rose in the dusk of late Saturday afternoon, and his tomb was found to be empty in the darkness of Sunday morning, but as Passover can fall on various days of the week, and Jesus said that he would be in the bowels of the earth for three days and three nights, we must ask the question; “On what day was he buried, on what day did the 15th of Nisan fall?”
The tomb of Jesus was found to be empty early on Sunday morning while it was still dark, See John 20: 1; this does not necessarily mean that he was resurrected on Sunday Morning, he may have been resurrected in the evening and beginning of Sunday, just after the sun had set on Saturday the weekly Sabbath.
If this were the case, it would mean that Jesus was buried as the sunset on Wednesday the 14th day of Nisan, (The true day of Passover) but the day of preparation to the erroneous Jewish seven days Passover, and Jesus remained in the tomb all Thursday night and the next day, the fifteenth day of Nisan, which is the first day of the Jewish Passover=seven days festival of Unleavened Bread, a MOST HIGH Sabbath on which no work could be done.
Then Friday night and Friday, the sixteenth day of Nisan in which the women could go out to the markets and purchase the Herbs and spices they needed to prepare the tomb of Jesus, and as the purchase and preparation of those spices would have taken up most of that day, and the evening of Saturday the weekly Sabbath was fast approaching in which no work could be done either, it was not until Sunday morning, in the darkness, that they were able to go, in order to prepare the tomb of Jesus, only to find that it was empty, where, in the darkness of Sunday morning they were confronted with the spirits of the saints who had come out of their graves with the resurrection of Jesus and entered the city and revealed themselves to many.
If Jesus was not resurrected until Sunday morning, then he would, had to have been in the tomb for three days and four nights.
So, unless we reckon that Jesus lied when he said that he would be in the bowels of the earth for three days and three nights, we must now accept that he was buried as the sunset on the 14th day of Nisan and remained in the Grave for all of the night and day of the 15th, and all of the night and day of the 16th, and all of the night and day of the 17th of Nisan, and was risen early in the evening immediately before the beginning of Sunday the 18th, but in what Year?