Simplistic explanation of surface velocity :
The circumference of the Earth at the equator is 25,000 miles. The Earth rotates in about 24 hours. Therefore, if you were to hang above the surface of the Earth at the equator without moving, you would see 25,000 miles pass by in 24 hours, at a speed of 25000/24 or just over 1000 miles per hour.
Multiply by cosine of your latitude to see how fast the Earth is rotating where you are.
Earth is also moving around the Sun at about 67,000 miles per hour.
No type of natural force could possibly stop the Earth (or anything that massive) instantly without destroying it in the process. It would require a collision with an object of dramatically greater mass, which would result in an energy release sufficient to liquify (plasma) most of the planet (thus ruining everyone's day).
On the other hand, the Earth and many other objects, like the moon, do lose their rotation very slowly over time due to tidal locking and other effects. But those things happen so slowly that we would never notice them.