For the Apollo trips, we wanted to send the astronauts through a sparse region of the belts, and to try and get through them quickly. This was necessary in any case; the crafts had to make it to the Moon in a reasonable amount of time, and the shorter the trip, the less exposure to all sorts of radiation the astronauts would get.
You saw the rockets take off. You saw the astronauts return. You don't know what happened in between except from what you saw on television.
The Russians also put reflectors on the moon. They did it robotically. So the presence of a reflector on the moon does not prove a manned moon landing. Nor do photographs of Apollo landing sites. Rockets have been to the moon and left equipment behind. But no person has ever been to the moon or even orbited it. No one has ever been more than 300 miles above the earth's surface.
The Russians put moon rovers on the moon - Lunokhod 1 and Lunokhod 2. They did it robotically.
Images taken by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission beginning in July 2009 show the six Apollo Lunar Module descent stages, Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) science experiments, astronaut footpaths, and lunar rover tire tracks. ... All of the sites have since been re-imaged at higher resolution.
A photograph showing a footprint? If you believe that, you will believe anything.
The photographs taken recently of the Apollo landing sites were all taken by NASA, the same people who faked the footage of the astronauts walking on the moon.
Only a few of those involved in the Apollo missions had an overall view of the project e.g. Bill Kaysing, and he blew the whistle.
Apollo 11 was in low earth orbit between taking off and landing in the ocean. This is certain, because there is a video of them faking being halfway to the moon. The video was accidentally released by NASA. Clips of it can be seen here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5xJyhkScXbQ
The astronauts are filming a partial view of the earth through the window whilst they are in low earth orbit. They have blacked out the interior of the spacecraft to make it look as though it is the whole earth from 130 000 miles away. They are also faking a time delay: a voice can be heard from ground control telling them when to talk.
The nearly forgotten story of how a radio amateur successfully detected transmissions from the first men to land on the Moon.
In July of 1969 a ham radio operator and amateur radio-astronomer by the name of Larry Baysinger, W4EJA, accomplished an amazing feat. He independently detected radio transmissions from the Apollo 11 astronauts on the lunar surface. Fortunately, his accomplishments were recorded by Glenn Rutherford, a young reporter for the Louisville (Kentucky) Courier-Journal. “Lunar Eavesdropping: Louisvillians hear moon walk talk on homemade equipment,” sporting Rutherford’s byline, appeared in the Wednesday, July 23, 1969 issue of that paper — front page of section B, the local news section (see Figure 1).
Rutherford opened the Courier story with “Thanks to some homemade electronic equipment, including a rebuilt 20 year old radio receiver from an Army tank (see Figure 2) and an antenna made of spare pieces of aluminum, nylon cord and chicken wire (see Figure 3 and 4), a small band of Louisvillians was able to ‘eavesdrop’ Sunday (July 20) night on the American astronauts’ conversation directly from the moon.”
The story discussed how Baysinger recorded 35 minutes of conversation from VHF signals transmitted between astronauts Armstrong, Aldrin and Collins (he did not attempt to pick up the encoded S-band signals from the main Moon-Earth communication link).1 These 35 minutes included the time during which President Richard Nixon transmitted a message of congratulations to the astronauts.
Rutherford’s story briefly mentioned how Baysinger had been previously successful in constructing a device to detect radio signals from Jupiter and in tracking and reproducing pictures transmitted from Earth-orbiting satellites. It briefly described the antenna used for the lunar eavesdropping project — a fully steerable 8 × 12 foot “corner horn” — and it briefly discussed the amazing sensitivity of the receiver, which Baysinger specially modified for the lunar eavesdropping project. Rutherford finished the story with “Needless to say, the receiver worked to perfection Sunday night.”
Baysinger’s accomplishment earned him some brief recognition — a meeting with the Collins Radio Company, which supplied the communications systems for the Apollo spacecraft. Collins was impressed with Baysinger’s work. Then the story faded into the mists of time. “Lunar Eavesdropping” quietly sat in the rolls of microfilmed Courier-Journal editions in the reference sections of (mostly Kentucky) libraries, awaiting rediscovery.
Providence brought “Lunar Eavesdropping” back to light this summer. Rutherford, now an assistant editor of the central Kentucky newspaper The Record, was interviewing me concerning the productive history-of-astronomy research program operated out of the Jefferson Community & Technical College observatory. Our discussion drifted into the subject of science being done in unexpected places by a small homegrown operation (such as a Kentucky community college observatory).
This prompted Rutherford to mention Baysinger’s work and the attention he got from the Collins Company as another example of interesting, homegrown, small-operation science in Louisville. I was immediately intrigued, especially when Rutherford said he did a story on it that appeared in the Courier-Journal.2 He could not recall the exact date, so a few days later I was rummaging through the microfilm collection at the University of Louisville library. I found Rutherford’s story within an hour (with the help of my wife Tina and son Joe).
When I got back to Rutherford about how I was interested in the story and had found it in the July 23, 1969 Courie
How then do you explain what it is the astronauts are doing, if not faking being halfway to the moon?
I expect the astronauts did speak to President Nixon on the telephone - from low earth orbit. They had to fake a time delay of about 8 seconds.
If someone saw a satellite with a low power telescope, they wouldn't know it was Apollo 11 and would think nothing of it.