There are Christian groups that still have women wear head coverings. Christianity has always been a very fractured religion.
Even when it was started there were competing groups of Christians with wildly different sets of customs and beliefs. If you read the letters of St. Paul, you will see that he was in the middle of a fight with at least two competing Christian groups. In the Bible, St. Paul makes arguments against Christians who wanted to follow Jewish customs, and he rebuffs the Gnostics.
In the 21st century it is much the same, you can find all kinds of Christian groups, equally "devoted" to their version of Christianity. A few of them still have women cover their heads, especially during worship.
You might think that if Christians all followed the Bible that they would all believe the same things. Unfortunately this isn't the case, the letters of Paul are only part of the New Testament. The gospels were written by different people, and the Letters of John the epistle paint a different picture.
The Bible acts as a Rorschach test, each Christian group interprets their favorite scriptures to support their particular set of customs and beliefs. Maybe that is the point.