Alabama's top judge has been suspended for the remainder of his term for defying federal court rulings that legalized same-sex marriage.
Roy Moore, 69, violated judicial ethics with an order seen as directing probate judges to deny marriage licences to gay couples, a judicial panel ruled.
The decision was a "politically motivated effort" by radical groups, he said. His lawyer has vowed to appeal.
It is the second suspension for Mr Moore, an outspoken conservative.
In 2003, he was removed for refusing to take down a monument of the Ten Commandments he installed at a state building.
When Judge Moore was a lower court judge, he had become famous for his fights over the display of the Ten Commandments in his courtroom.
On August 1, 2001, Justice Moore had a 5,280-pound (2,400 kg) block of granite with the Ten Commandments engraved on it, installed during the middle of the night without the knowledge of the other Alabama Supreme Court justices.
A group of lawyers consisting of Stephen R. Glassroth, Melinda Maddox and Beverly Howard, who felt their clients might not receive fair treatment if they did not share Moore's religious opinion, and that the placement of the monument violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, filed civil suits in Federal Court against Justice Moore in his official capacity as Chief Justice to have the monument removed.