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Very few people are 100% black or 100% white

 
 
Miller
 
Reply Sun 5 Oct, 2014 01:28 am
Black mum gives birth to WHITE baby in 1,000,000-1 odds that baffled midwives
Sep 01, 2014 17:52 By Sophie Warnes

This week, new parents Catherine and Richard were shocked to find their baby boy has totally Caucasian skin, and not a darker tone as expected. It was a one in a million chance - but here's how it happens.

Catherine and Richard Howarth were convinced they'd been given the wrong child by mistake - their newborn baby boy was white and not dark-skinned as they'd expected. It's an unusual story - but it's not the first time that it's happened. How does this sort of thing occur and why?
His mother probably had a white ancestor

The baby's father Richard is white, but mum Catherine has dark skin from her Nigerian heritage. Genes from one of her ancestors may have lain dormant for generations - until randomly thrown together in the new baby, they brought out traits that had been latent for so long. This is what's known as a genetic/evolutionary throwback, or atavism.
How genes determine skin colour

Melanin is the pigmentation in skin that determines a person's skin colour. Groups of people whose ancestors lived closer to the equator - where there's more UV radiation - tend to have darker skin.

But the combinations of genes thrown up everytime a baby is born means that mixed-race child can be anywhere on a spectrum between its two parents.

The genes that control the amount of melanin in someone's skin operate under "incomplete dominance" which means no specific trait over-rules the others. All of the variant gene traits are completely expressed, and visually this will mean a mixed-race child's skintone will be a visual mix of its parents.

This chart shows how that works with two parents with three white-skin alleles (gene traits), and three black-skin alleles. The use of six gene traits is just an example to show how the mixing can produce many different combinations.


A one in a million chance

You can see that the chance of a baby with Caucasian skin tone is 1/64 for parents with three dark-skin alleles each. However, the chances would be far lower for this to happen in Catherine's case, as the recessive gene could be just one in 20 alleles - in fact, the chances of this happening were calculated at roughly one in a million!

But those one in a million chances happen. It's the nature of statistics that statistically unlikely events happen every so often. So it may be surprising, but it's not out of the normal.
Very few people are 100% black or 100% white

The chart also shows that few people are 100% white-skinned or 100% dark-skinned. The vast majority of people fall on the spectrum in between. But though geneticists understand skin colour that way - it's not how society views skin colour. Socially we tend to put people in much simpler categories: black or white or brown. That means we find it hard to understand natural genetic variation. Throughout history it has been used to justify wars and inequality.
Born to racist parents in South Africa

The story of a baby coming out a surprising colour isn't the first of its kind - there have been many examples of children being born a different colour to their parents.

One of the saddest - and most famous - stories is that of Sandra Laing. Sandra is a black-skinned woman who was born to white parents in apartheid South Africa and forced to leave home at the age of ten.

People have also had children who have differently-coloured skin to their siblings. In 2005, Kylee Hodgson and Remi Horder had twin girls - one black and one white.

If you're really fascinated by learning about genetic variations in skin colour, we recommend this really great Wikipedia article which goes into a lot of depth on the subject.

www.mirror.com.uk




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Type: Discussion • Score: 0 • Views: 2,191 • Replies: 15

 
contrex
 
  3  
Reply Sun 5 Oct, 2014 02:06 am
My son's best friend at school is albino, born of Afro-Caribbean parents in the UK. They knew of the possibility, because of family history.
Moment-in-Time
 
  1  
Reply Sun 5 Oct, 2014 09:45 am
@contrex,
What is albinism?
Albinism is a disease in which a person has partial or complete loss of pigmentation (coloring) of the skin, eyes and hair.

What causes it?
Genetic mutations that affect the production of a pigment called melanin. There is a cell called the melanocyte that is responsible for giving skin, hair, and eyes pigmentation. In albinism, the melanocytes are present, but genetic mutations interfere with their pigment production or their ability to distribute it to keratinocytes, the major cell type comprising the epidermis, or outer layer of the skin. There are currently five known genetic types of albinism, the most common being oculocutaneous type 1 (OCA1) and type 2 (OCA2). Oculocutaneous means affecting the eyes and skin ("oculo" meaning eye and "cutaneous" meaning skin).

More:
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/killing-albinos-tanzania-albinism/
Miller
 
  1  
Reply Sun 5 Oct, 2014 11:09 am
@Moment-in-Time,
"Black mum gives birth to WHITE baby"

The baby in question was not an albino. It was, what is normally called "a white baby".

By the way, the baby did contain pigmentation in the iris of it's eye. As a matter of fact, the white babies born to parents in each example given was a non-albino baby, with normal intelligence and pigmentation in the iris of the eye and the pigment associated with the eye lashes.

Albinos have a very characteristic appearance.
0 Replies
 
Miller
 
  1  
Reply Sun 5 Oct, 2014 11:13 am
@contrex,
The situation with albinos is different from what we are discussing here. The baby was born white...not albino. And the white appearance is identical to the white appearance of a baby normally delivered to a couple, who are both white.

Biochemically, physiologically, medically the albino has several distinct characteristics that differentiate it from the "normal white baby".

0 Replies
 
One Eyed Mind
 
  1  
Reply Sun 5 Oct, 2014 11:29 am
I enjoyed this read. Ignore the racist allegations, people just don't know how to stop complaining - if people had nothing to complain about, they would complain about not having anything to complain about.
Miller
 
  1  
Reply Sun 5 Oct, 2014 11:32 am
@One Eyed Mind,
For some folks, the ability to complain, gives them a high, which is higher than anything a drug would do.
One Eyed Mind
 
  1  
Reply Sun 5 Oct, 2014 11:35 am
@Miller,
Of course it does - it always feel good to make people look smaller than you; that egotistical trip is an amazing feeling, but its gets old to those who can grow and never gets old for those who are stunted.

My favorite part is when people pick the biggest targets; governments, scientists, wise men and so on.

I don't doubt that some people actually argue with their pets.

This is a great article, so I'm not sure why people are down voting and why good people aren't voting it up. Such a shame this world is easily swayed by the cries of a child - I really cannot wait for the generation where all these brats get what's coming to them. They deserve every bit of it.
Miller
 
  1  
Reply Sun 5 Oct, 2014 11:52 am
@One Eyed Mind,
One Eyed Mind wrote:

This is a great article, so I'm not sure why people are down voting and why good people aren't voting it up. Such a shame this world is easily swayed by the cries of a child - I really cannot wait for the generation where all these brats get what's coming to them. They deserve every bit of it.


There are some members who have multiple accounts on A2K and when they don't like a post, or more likely they don't "like" the poster, they will jump from computer -to-computer, change their ID anbd vote down post after post. They dislike the poster and never read nor understand the post.

The brats are getting it right now, but they're so retarded, they don't know it..Smile
One Eyed Mind
 
  1  
Reply Sun 5 Oct, 2014 11:56 am
@Miller,
Yep, that about sums it up. What are your thoughts on a voting system that can be used by both, intellects and idiots? Furthermore, do you think voting systems encourage intellectual votes? Or do you think it encourages abuse, favoritism and pushes people away from those that actually matter to this society because there's less good people and many, many bad people? Finally, ask yourself, would a wise man really vote someone down? Think about it.
Miller
 
  1  
Reply Sun 5 Oct, 2014 12:07 pm
@One Eyed Mind,
One Eyed Mind wrote:

Yep, that about sums it up. What are your thoughts on a voting system that can be used by both, intellects and idiots? Furthermore, do you think voting systems encourage intellectual votes? Or do you think it encourages abuse, favoritism and pushes people away from those that actually matter to this society because there's less good people and many, many bad people? Finally, ask yourself, would a wise man really vote someone down? Think about it.


The voting system serves no real function except to drive some very intelligent and very well educated individuals away from A2K. Likewise with the name calling ... some folks ( the brightest) just leave and move onto other sites. So sad...(:
One Eyed Mind
 
  1  
Reply Sun 5 Oct, 2014 12:09 pm
@Miller,
Indeed. Most people on here remind me of those drama queens at school that will do anything to get back at anyone that threatens their sweet sparkly circlet. "Look at me!". If this Universe was backwards in the sense we could see people for what they are on the inside instead of the outside, mentally, this world would have no problem keeping its face out of the sand.
Miller
 
  1  
Reply Sun 5 Oct, 2014 12:15 pm
@One Eyed Mind,
Yes, your right. It's like the first grade with little kids trying to be the teacher's pet. The more votes up you get, the closer you get to being the teacher's pet.

I've always wondered what becomes of these little kids after they grow up and the teachers have all died.
One Eyed Mind
 
  1  
Reply Sun 5 Oct, 2014 12:19 pm
@Miller,
That's another good example.

Will you look at that. Good people like us are tossed into the abyss with actual crazy posters that are deemed crazier by the crazy people on here. Such a shame. Perhaps this is how great minds stick together - it's not like they had any choice!
0 Replies
 
Pamela Rosa
 
  -1  
Reply Wed 18 Oct, 2017 04:36 pm
Genes responsible for skin colour are pinpointed in a discovery that 'dispels a biological concept of race' (PR: because Blacks and Whites are distinct species!!!)and reveals how our tones have varied for 900,000 years

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4974000/Scientists-pinpoint-genes-varying-skin-colours.html#ixzz4vtxlA07p
Cycloptichorn
 
  2  
Reply Wed 18 Oct, 2017 04:38 pm
@Pamela Rosa,
Holy ****, you're still pushing racist crap a decade later, I'd forgotten about this stuff until now

Cycloptichorn
0 Replies
 
 

 
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