These are mainly questions about tenses, or subject/verb agreement.
There are verb tenses that we use to express what happened in the past, and tenses to show what is happening today, and what will be happening in the future.
In the previous paragraph, I just showed you examples of all three for the verb to happen
. Did you catch them all?
As for subject and verb agreement, in most languages there is some equivalent of first, second, and third person, and single and plural are also differentiated.
Consider pronouns first:
First person singular: I, me, my, mine, myself
First person plural: we, us, our, ours, ourselves
Second person singular and plural are mostly the same in English: you, your, yours, yourself (although the plural can be yourselves, plus there are parts of the US where there are slang plurals like y'all, youse, or yinz)
Third person singular: he, she, one, or it; him, her, one, it; his hers, one's, or its; himself, herself, oneself (sometimes written as one's self), or itself
Third person plural: they, them, their, theirs, theirselves
When gender is not known, or for transgender people, the pronoun they
is often used as the first person singular. But for the most part, the list above will work.
Verbs in English just have single and plural. We don't change our verbs for gender. With very few exceptions, we also don't distinguish between first and second person. Your standard English verb goes like this:
First and second person singular: I live, I lived, you live, you lived
Third person singular: he lives, she lived, etc.
Plural: we live, they live, we lived, those girls lived, etc.
With some spelling exceptions (for example, we write said
for the past tense of to say
), you change all English verbs from singular to plural the same way.
One irregular verb in English is the verb to be
First person singular: I am, I was, I have been
Second person singular and plural: you are, you were, you have been
Third person singular: he is, she was, it has been
First person singular: we are, we were, we have been
Third person plural: they are, they were, they have been
There's a lot more but this should get you started.
Now, how would you answer your test questions?